Lowering Elevated LDL-C Remains a Significant Unmet Need

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which results in heart attacks, strokes and other cardiovascular events, represents the number one cause of death and disability globally. According to American Heart Association estimates, in the U.S.:

  • CVD accounts for 1 in 3 deaths
  • Someone has a heart attack approximately every 40 seconds
  • CVD expenses, including stroke, in the U.S. were $317 billion in 2012-2013; including the cost of healthcare services, medications and lost productivity. (1)

Elevated LDL-C is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The CDC (Centers for Disease Control) through NHANES (National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey) estimates that 78 million(2) U.S. adults have elevated levels of LDL-C (also known as hypercholesterolemia). In the U.S., increasing attention has been placed on aggressive LDL-C lowering. This has led to the combination of statins with other treatments to reach LDL-C goals.

Current Treatment Options May Not Be Adequate for All Patients

Statins are the standard of care for patients with hypercholesterolemia today and are highly effective at lowering LDL-C, with well-documented benefits. However, a significant subset of patients is unable to tolerate statins due to adverse events, including: muscle pain or weakness; increased glucose levels; and in rare and extreme cases, muscle breakdown, kidney failure, and death.

  • Approximately 38 million U.S. adults with elevated LDL-C levels are not on an LDL-C lowering therapy.
  • As many as 50% of patients stop taking statins within one year of initiating treatment. Poor statin adherence is associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes.
  • Muscle pain or weakness is the most common side effect experienced by statin users and the most common cause for discontinuing therapy.
  • Statins are the current standard of care for LDL-C lowering for approximately 35 million patients in the United States. However, it is estimated that approximately 10% of these patients are intolerant of statin therapy due to muscle pain or weakness associated with their use.

Additionally, patients with Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) or Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ASCVD) that require additional LDL-C lowering on top of maximally tolerated statin therapy represent a high-risk patient population with an important unmet medical need. Approximately 9 million(3) patients with HeFH or ASCVD in the U.S are currently on maximally tolerated statin therapy but are unable to achieve their LDL-C treatment goal. They remain at risk for cardiovascular disease and while a number of therapeutic alternatives for HeFH and ASCVD patients are currently available or in clinical development, we believe that patients, clinicians and payers will continue to first seek convenient, once-daily, oral small molecule therapies to combine with maximally tolerated lipid-modifying therapies.

Pursuing Complementary Non-Statin LDL-C Lowering Therapies for Statin Intolerant and Residual Risk Patients

Esperion is initially pursuing the clinical development of bempedoic acid for patients with elevated LDL-C who are not adequately treated with current lipid-modifying therapies.

Additionally, Esperion is developing the bempedoic acid / ezetimibe combination pill as a highly effective oral, once-daily. non-statin LDL-C lowering therapy for patients with hypercholesterolemia who are not adequately treated with current lipid-modifying therapies, including those patients considered statin intolerant.


(1) Mozaffarian D, Benjamin EJ, Go AS, Arnett DK, Blaha MJ, Cushman M, Das SR, de Ferranti S, Després J-P, Fullerton HJ, Howard VJ, Huffman MD, Isasi CR, Jiménez MC, Judd SE, Kissela BM, Lichtman JH, Lisabeth LD, Liu S, Mackey RH, Magid DJ, McGuire DK, Mohler ER III, Moy CS, Muntner P, Mussolino ME, Nasir K, Neumar RW, Nichol G, Palaniappan L, Pandey DK, Reeves MJ, Rodriguez CJ, Rosamond W, Sorlie PD, Stein J, Towfighi A, Turan TN, Virani SS, Woo D, Yeh RW, Turner MB; on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2016 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2016;133:000-000.

(2) Mercado C, DeSimone A, Odom E et al., Prevalance of Cholesterol Treatment Eligibility and Medication Us Among Adults – United States, 2005 – 2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2015; 64:1305:1311.

(3) Esperion analysis, NHANES 2008-2012.