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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-Q
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to       
         
Commission file number: 001-35986
Esperion Therapeutics, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware    26-1870780
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
3891 Ranchero Drive, Suite 150
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
(Address of principal executive office) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:
(734) 887-3903
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class Trading Symbol(s) Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share ESPR 
NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes x  No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes x  No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filero    Accelerated filero
Non-accelerated filerxSmaller reporting company x
Emerging growth company
o
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes   No x
As of May 1, 2023, there were 94,712,657 shares of the registrant’s Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share, outstanding.


Table of Contents
Esperion Therapeutics, Inc.
INDEX
Page

2

Table of Contents


Esperion Therapeutics, Inc.
Condensed Balance Sheets
(in thousands, except share data)
March 31,
2023
December 31,
2022
(unaudited)
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$144,911 $124,775 
Short-term investments17,427 42,086 
Accounts receivable36,415 33,729 
Prepaid clinical development costs6,916 1,026 
Inventories, net39,352 35,201 
Other prepaid and current assets5,584 9,866 
Total current assets250,605 246,683 
Property and equipment, net83 164 
Right of use operating lease assets1,075 1,036 
Intangible assets56 56 
Total assets$251,819 $247,939 
Liabilities and stockholders’ equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$17,065 $23,040 
Accrued clinical development costs4,617 5,426 
Other accrued liabilities34,421 35,191 
Revenue interest liability26,921 24,760 
Deferred revenue from collaborations12,157 3,507 
Operating lease liabilities305 384 
Total current liabilities95,486 92,308 
Convertible notes, net of issuance costs260,316 259,899 
Revenue interest liability224,898 218,845 
Operating lease liabilities782 665 
Total liabilities581,482 571,717 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 5)
Stockholders’ equity:
Preferred stock, $0.001 par value; 5,000,000 shares authorized and no shares issued or outstanding as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022
  
Common stock, $0.001 par value; 240,000,000 shares authorized as of March 31, 2023 and as of December 31, 2022; 89,237,167 shares issued at March 31, 2023 and 76,564,396 shares issued at December 31, 2022
87 75 
Additional paid-in capital1,127,004 1,071,183 
Treasury stock, at cost; 1,994,198 shares at March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022
(54,998)(54,998)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(1)(2)
Accumulated deficit(1,401,755)(1,340,036)
Total stockholders’ deficit(329,663)(323,778)
Total liabilities and stockholders’ deficit$251,819 $247,939 
See accompanying notes to the condensed financial statements.
3

Table of Contents
Esperion Therapeutics, Inc.
Condensed Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
(unaudited)

Three Months Ended
March 31,
20232022
Revenues:
Product sales, net$17,031 $13,354 
Collaboration revenue7,298 5,482 
Total Revenues24,329 18,836 
Operating expenses:
Cost of goods sold11,652 7,125 
Research and development31,381 24,319 
Selling, general and administrative29,901 30,381 
Total operating expenses72,934 61,825 
Loss from operations(48,605)(42,989)
Interest expense(14,387)(14,062)
Other income, net1,273 320 
Net loss$(61,719)$(56,731)
Net loss per common share - basic and diluted$(0.79)$(0.93)
Weighted-average shares outstanding - basic and diluted78,440,266 60,954,755 
Other comprehensive loss:
Unrealized gain (loss) on investments$1 $(232)
Comprehensive loss$(61,718)$(56,963)
See accompanying notes to the condensed financial statements.

4

Table of Contents
Esperion Therapeutics, Inc.
Condensed Statements of Stockholders’ Deficit
(in thousands, except share data)
(unaudited)
Common StockAdditional Paid-In CapitalAccumulated DeficitAccumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)Treasury StockTotal Stockholders' Deficit
SharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 202160,879,496 $61 $964,401 $(1,106,377)$(31)$(54,998)$(196,944)
Vesting of restricted stock units55,286 — — — — — — 
Vesting of ESPP Shares123,785 — 431 — — — 431 
Stock-based compensation— — 4,436 — — — 4,436 
Other comprehensive loss— — — — (232)— (232)
Net loss— — — (56,731)— — (56,731)
Balance at March 31, 202261,058,567 $61 $969,268 $(1,163,108)$(263)$(54,998)$(249,040)
Common StockAdditional Paid-In CapitalAccumulated DeficitAccumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)Treasury StockTotal Stockholders' Deficit
SharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 202274,570,198 $75 $1,071,183 $(1,340,036)$(2)$(54,998)$(323,778)
Vesting of restricted stock units and performance-based restricted stock units372,117 — — — — — — 
Vesting of ESPP Shares95,654 — 502 — — — 502 
Stock-based compensation— — 2,903 — — — 2,903 
Issuance of common stock, warrants, and pre-funded warrants, net of issuance costs12,205,000 12 52,416 — — — 52,428 
Other comprehensive gain— — — — 1 — 1 
Net loss— — — (61,719)— — (61,719)
Balance at March 31, 202387,242,969 $87 $1,127,004 $(1,401,755)$(1)$(54,998)$(329,663)
See accompanying notes to the condensed financial statements.
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Esperion Therapeutics, Inc.
Condensed Statements of Cash Flows
(in thousands)
(unaudited)
Three Months Ended March 31,
20232022
Operating activities
Net loss$(61,719)$(56,731)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:
Depreciation expense81 153 
Amortization of premiums and discounts on investments(339)173 
Amortization of debt issuance costs417 398 
Non-cash interest expense related to the revenue interest liability11,320 11,015 
Stock-based compensation expense2,903 4,436 
Changes in assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable(2,686)(2,182)
Prepaids and other assets(1,608)764 
Deferred revenue8,650 (2,100)
Inventories(4,151)(1,260)
Accounts payable(5,975)9,393 
Other accrued liabilities(1,249)(3,049)
Net cash used in operating activities(54,356)(38,990)
Investing activities
Purchases of investments (18,102)
Proceeds from sales/maturities of investments25,000  
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities25,000 (18,102)
Financing activities
Payments on revenue interest liability(3,106)(1,217)
Proceeds from issuance of common stock, warrants, and pre-funded warrants, net of issuance costs52,598  
Payment of issuance costs (219)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities49,492 (1,436)
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents20,136 (58,528)
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period124,775 258,892 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period$144,911 $200,364 
Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information:
Common stock issuance, warrant, and pre-funded warrant issuance costs not yet paid$170 $ 
Non cash right of use asset1 6 
See accompanying notes to the condensed financial statements.

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Esperion Therapeutics, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Financial Statements
(unaudited)
1. The Company and Basis of Presentation
Esperion Therapeutics, Inc. ("the Company”) is a pharmaceutical company singularly focused on developing and commercializing accessible, oral, once-daily, non-statin medicines for patients struggling with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ("LDL-C"). Through commercial execution and completion of the CLEAR Outcomes trial as well as advancing the Company's pre-clinical pipeline, the Company continues to evolve into a differentiated, global cardiometabolic biotech. The Esperion team of lipid experts are dedicated to lowering bad cholesterol through the discovery, development and commercialization of innovative medicines and their combinations with established medicines. The Company's first two products were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ("FDA"), European Medicines Agency ("EMA") and Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Products ("Swissmedic") in 2020. Bempedoic acid and the bempedoic acid / ezetimibe combination tablet are oral, once-daily, non-statin, LDL-C lowering medicines for patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ("ASCVD") or heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia ("HeFH").

The Company recently completed a global cardiovascular outcomes trial, or CVOT, — known as Cholesterol Lowering via BEmpedoic Acid, an ACL-inhibiting Regimen (CLEAR) Outcomes. The trial was designed to evaluate whether treatment with bempedoic acid reduced the risk of cardiovascular events in patients who are statin averse and who have CVD or are at high risk for CVD. The Company initiated the CLEAR Outcomes CVOT in December 2016 and fully enrolled the study with over 14,000 patients in August 2019. The primary endpoint of the study was the effect of bempedoic acid on four types of major adverse cardiovascular events, or MACE (cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, or coronary revascularization; also referred to as “four-component MACE”). CLEAR Outcomes was an event-driven trial and concluded once the predetermined number of MACE endpoints occurred. On December 7, 2022, the Company announced that the study had met its primary endpoint.

On March 4, 2023, the Company announced the full results from the CLEAR Outcomes trial. The study showed that bempedoic acid demonstrated significant cardiovascular risk reductions and significantly reduced the risk of heart attack and coronary revascularization as compared to placebo. These results were seen in a broad population of primary and secondary prevention patients who are unable to maximize or tolerate a statin. The proportions of patients experiencing adverse events and serious adverse events were similar between the active and placebo treatment groups. Bempedoic acid (contained in NEXLETOL® and NEXLIZET® (bempedoic acid and ezetimibe) tablets) now becomes the first LDL-C lowering therapy since statins proven to lower hard ischemic events, not only in those with ASCVD but also in the large number of primary prevention patients for whom limited therapies exist. The Company believes that it remains on track to submit regulatory filings to the FDA and EMA in the first half of 2023 with expected inclusion in the U.S. and EMA labels in the first half of 2024.

On March 19, 2023, the Company entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”) with certain purchasers named therein (the “Purchasers”), pursuant to which the Company agreed to issue and sell, in a registered direct offering (the “Offering”), 12,205,000 shares of its common stock, par value $0.001 per share (the “Common Stock”), pre-funded warrants to purchase up to an aggregate of 20,965,747 shares of Common Stock (the “Pre-Funded Warrants”) in lieu of shares of Common Stock, and warrants to purchase up to 33,170,747 shares of Common Stock (the “Warrants”). The combined purchase price of each share of Common Stock and accompanying Warrant is $1.675 per share. The purchase price of each Pre-Funded Warrant and the accompanying Warrant is $1.674 (equal to the combined purchase price per share of Common Stock and accompanying Warrant, minus $0.001). The Purchase Agreement contains customary representations, warranties, covenants and indemnification rights and obligations of the Company and the Purchasers. The Offering closed on March 22, 2023. In connection with the Offering, the Company amended, pursuant to Warrant Amendment Agreements (the “Warrant Amendment Agreements”), certain existing warrants to purchase up to an aggregate of 9,024,212 shares of the Company's common stock that were previously issued in December 2021 at an exercise price of $9.00 per share and had an expiration date of December 7, 2023, effective upon the closing of the Offering, such that the amended warrants have a reduced exercise price of $1.55 per share and expire three and one half years following the closing of the Offering, for additional consideration of $0.125 per amended warrant. The Company received gross proceeds of approximately $55.5 million from the Offering, before deducting placement agent fees and related offering expenses. The net proceeds to the Company from the Offering, after deducting the placement agent fees and expenses and the Company’s estimated offering expenses, are approximately $51.3 million. In addition, the Company received approximately $1.2 million as the gross consideration in connection with the Warrant Amendment Agreements. The net proceeds of the Warrant Amendment Agreements after deducting placement fees were approximately $1.1 million. Refer to Note 13 "Stockholders' Deficit" for further information.

The Company's primary activities since incorporation have been conducting research and development activities, including nonclinical, preclinical and clinical testing, gaining commercial approval of its products, developing a commercial sales team, performing business and financial planning, recruiting personnel, and raising capital. The Company received approval by the FDA in February 2020 to commercialize NEXLETOL (bempedoic acid) and NEXLIZET (bempedoic acid and ezetimibe) tablet in the U.S., and accordingly commenced principal operations on March 30, 2020 with the commercialization of NEXLETOL.
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The Company is subject to risks and uncertainties which include the need to successfully commercialize its products, research, develop, and clinically test therapeutic products; obtain regulatory approvals for its products (or additional or expanded indications for approved products); manage its management, commercial and scientific staff; and finance its operations with an ultimate goal of achieving profitable operations.

The Company has sustained annual operating losses since inception and expects such losses to continue over the foreseeable future. While management believes current cash resources and future cash received from the Company's net product sales and collaboration agreements with Daiichi Sankyo Europe GmbH ("DSE"), Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd ("Otsuka"), and Daiichi Sankyo Co. Ltd ("DS"), entered into on January 2, 2019, April 17, 2020 and April 26, 2021, respectively, will fund operations for the foreseeable future, management may continue to fund operations and advance the development of the Company's products and product candidates through a combination of collaborations with third parties, strategic alliances, licensing arrangements, permitted debt financings, permitted royalty-based financings, and permitted private and public equity offerings or through other sources.
If adequate funds are not available, the Company may not be able to continue the development of its current products or future product candidates, or to commercialize its current or future product candidates, if approved.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying condensed interim financial statements are unaudited and were prepared by the Company in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“GAAP”). In the opinion of management, the Company has made all adjustments, which include only normal recurring adjustments necessary for a fair presentation of the Company’s financial position and results of operations for the interim periods presented. Certain information and disclosures normally included in the annual financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP, but that is not required for interim reporting purposes, have been condensed or omitted. These condensed interim financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2022, and the notes thereto, which are included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022. The results of operations for the interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for a full year, any other interim periods or any future year or period.
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, net revenues, expenses and related disclosures. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company invests its excess cash in bank deposits, money market accounts, and short-term investments. The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of 90 days or less at the time of purchase to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents are reported at fair value.
Investments
Investments are considered to be available-for-sale and are carried at fair value. Unrealized gains and losses, if any, are reported in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). The cost of investments classified as available-for-sale are adjusted for the amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts to maturity and recorded in other income, net. Realized gains and losses, if any, are determined using the specific identification method and recorded in other income, net. Investments with original maturities beyond 90 days at the date of purchase and which mature at, or less than twelve months from, the balance sheet date are classified as current. Investments with a maturity beyond twelve months from the balance sheet date are classified as long-term.
Concentration of Risk
The Company enters into a limited number of distribution agreements with distributors and specialty pharmacies. The Company's net product sales are with these customers. As of March 31, 2023, eleven customers accounted for all of the
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Company's net trade receivables and as of December 31, 2022, eleven customers accounted for all the Company's net trade receivables.
Revenue Recognition
In accordance with ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, the Company recognizes revenue when a customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for the goods or services provided. To determine revenue recognition for arrangements within the scope of ASC 606, the Company performs the following five steps: identify the contracts with a customer; identify the performance obligations in the contract; determine the transaction price; allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and recognize revenue when or as the entity satisfies a performance obligation. At contract inception the Company assesses the goods or services promised within each contract and determines those that are performance obligations and assesses whether each promised good or service is distinct. The Company then recognizes as revenue the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation when or as the performance obligation is satisfied. The Company derives revenue through two primary sources: collaboration revenue and product sales. Collaboration revenue consists of the collaboration payments to the Company for collaboration arrangements outside of the United States for the development, manufacturing and commercialization, including royalties, of the Company's product candidates by the Company's partners and product sales consists of sales of NEXLETOL and NEXLIZET.
a.Collaboration Revenue
The Company has entered into agreements related to its activities to develop, manufacture, and commercialize its product candidates. The Company earns collaboration revenue in connection with a collaboration agreement to develop and/or commercialize product candidates where the Company deems the collaborator to be the customer. Revenue is recognized when (or as) the Company satisfies performance obligations under the terms of a contract. Depending on the terms of the arrangement, the Company may defer the recognition of all or a portion of the consideration received as the performance obligations are satisfied.
The collaboration agreements may require the Company to deliver various rights, services, and/or goods across the entire life cycle of a product or product candidate. In an agreement involving multiple goods or services promised to be transferred to a customer, the Company must assess, at the inception of the contract, whether each promise represents a separate performance obligation (i.e., is "distinct"), or whether such promises should be combined as a single performance obligation.
The terms of the agreement typically include consideration to be provided to the Company in the form of non-refundable up-front payments, development milestones, sales milestones, and royalties on sales of products within a respective territory. The Company recognizes regulatory and approval milestones as consideration when it is probable that a future reversal is unlikely to occur. For sales-based milestones and royalties based on sales of product in a territory, the Company applies the sales-based royalty exception in ASC 606-10-55-65 to all of these milestones and royalties.
At the inception of the contract, the transaction price reflects the amount of consideration the Company expects to be entitled to in exchange for transferring promised goods or services to its customer. In the arrangement where the Company satisfies performance obligation(s) during the regulatory phase over time, the Company recognizes collaboration revenue typically using an input method on the basis of regulatory costs incurred relative to the total expected cost which determines the extent of progress toward completion. The Company reviews the estimate of the transaction price and the total expected cost each period and makes revisions to such estimates as necessary. Under contracted supply agreements with collaborators, the Company, through its third party contract manufacturing partners, may manufacture and supply quantities of active pharmaceutical ingredient (“API”) or bulk tablets reasonably required by collaboration partners for the development or sale of licensed products in their respective territory. The Company recognizes revenue when the collaboration partner has obtained control of the API or bulk tablets. The Company records the costs related to the supply agreement in cost of goods sold on the condensed statements of operations and comprehensive (loss) income.
Under the Company's collaboration agreements, product sales and cost of sales may be recorded by the Company's collaborators as they are deemed to be the principal in the transaction. The Company receives royalties from the commercialization of such products, and records its share of the variable consideration, representing a percentage of net product sales, as collaboration revenue in the period in which such underlying sales occur and costs are incurred by the collaborator.
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b.Product Sales, Net
On February 21, 2020, the Company announced that the FDA approved NEXLETOL as an adjunct to diet and maximally tolerated statin therapy for the treatment of adults with HeFH or established ASCVD who require additional lowering of LDL-C. On February 26, 2020, the Company announced that the FDA approved NEXLIZET as an adjunct to diet and maximally tolerated statin therapy for the treatment of adults with HeFH or established ASCVD who require additional lowering of LDL-C. On March 30, 2020, NEXLETOL was commercially available in the U.S. through prescription and on June 4, 2020, NEXLIZET was commercially available in the U.S. through prescription. Net product sales totaled $17.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023, and $13.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022.
The Company sells NEXLETOL and NEXLIZET to wholesalers in the U.S. and, in accordance with ASC 606, recognizes revenue at the point in time when the customer is deemed to have obtained control of the product. The customer is deemed to have obtained control of the product at the time of physical receipt of the product at the customers’ distribution facilities, or free on board (“FOB”) destination, the terms of which are designated in the contract.
Product sales are recorded at the net selling price, which includes estimates of variable consideration for which reserves are established for (a) rebates and chargebacks, (b) co-pay assistance programs, (c) distribution fees, (d) product returns, and (e) other discounts. Where appropriate, these estimates take into consideration a range of possible outcomes which are probability-weighted for relevant factors such as current contractual and statutory requirements, and forecasted customer buying and payment patterns. Overall, these reserves reflect the Company's best estimates of the amount of consideration to which it is entitled based on the terms of the applicable contract. The amount of variable consideration may be constrained and is included in the net sales price only to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of the cumulative revenue recognized will not occur in a future period. Given the early stage of the Company’s commercial operations it has provided constraint of its variable consideration due to its potential consumption trends. Actual amounts of consideration ultimately received may differ from the Company's estimates. If actual results in the future vary from estimates, the Company adjusts these estimates, which would affect net product revenue and earnings in the period such variances become known.
Liabilities for co-pay assistance, expected product returns, rebates, and distributor fees are classified as “Other accrued liabilities” in the condensed balance sheets. Discounts, such as prompt pay discounts, and chargebacks are recorded as a reduction to trade accounts receivable in the condensed balance sheets.
Forms of Variable Consideration
Rebates and Chargebacks: The Company estimates reductions to product sales for Public Health Service Institutions, such as Medicaid, Medicare and Veterans' Administration ("VA") programs, as well as certain other qualifying federal and state government programs, and other group purchasing organizations. The Company estimates these reductions based upon the Company's contracts with government agencies and other organizations, statutorily defined discounts and estimated payor mix. These organizations purchase directly from the Company's wholesalers at a discount and the wholesalers charge the Company back the difference between the wholesaler price and the discounted price. The Company's liability for Medicaid rebates consists of estimates for claims that a state will make for a current quarter. The Company's reserve for this discounted pricing is based on expected sales to qualified healthcare providers and the chargebacks that customers have already claimed.
Co-pay assistance: Eligible patients who have commercial insurance may receive assistance from the Company to reduce the patient's out of pocket costs. The Company will buy down the difference between the amount of the eligible patient's co-pay when the drug is purchased at the pharmacy at a determined price. Liabilities for co-pay assistance are calculated by actual program participation from third-party administrators.
Distribution Fees: The Company has written contracts with its customers that include terms for distribution fees and costs for inventory management. The Company estimates and records distribution fees due to its customers based on gross sales.
Product Returns: The Company generally offers a right of return based on the product’s expiration date and certain spoilage and damaged instances. The Company estimates the amount of product sales that may be returned and records the estimate as a reduction of product sales in the period the related product sales is recognized. The Company’s estimates for expected returns are based primarily on an ongoing analysis of sales information and visibility into the inventory remaining in the distribution channel.
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Discounts: The Company provides product discounts, such as prompt pay discounts, to its customers. The Company estimates cash discounts based on terms in negotiated contracts and the Company’s expectations regarding future payment patterns.
Inventories
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value and recognized on a first-in, first-out ("FIFO") method. The Company uses standard cost to determine the cost basis for inventory. Inventory is capitalized based on when future economic benefit is expected to be realized.
The Company analyzes its inventory levels on a periodic basis to determine if any inventory is at risk for expiration prior to sale or has a cost basis that is greater than its estimated future net realizable value. Any adjustments are recognized through cost of goods sold in the period in which they are incurred.
Recently Implemented Accounting Pronouncements
There have been no other material changes to the significant accounting policies previously disclosed in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022.
3. Collaborations with Third Parties
DSE Agreement Terms
On January 2, 2019, the Company entered into a license and collaboration agreement with DSE, which was furthered amended on June 18, 2020. Pursuant to the amended agreement, the Company granted DSE exclusive commercialization rights to bempedoic acid and the bempedoic acid / ezetimibe combination tablet in the European Economic Area, Turkey, and Switzerland (“DSE Territory”). DSE will be responsible for commercialization in the DSE Territory. DSE's designated affiliate in Turkey will be solely responsible, at its sole cost and expense, for all regulatory matters relating to such products in Turkey, including obtaining regulatory approval for such products in Turkey. The Company remains responsible for clinical development, regulatory and manufacturing activities for the licensed products globally, including in the DSE Territory outside of Turkey.
Pursuant to the agreement, the Company received upfront cash of $150.0 million in 2019 and a $150.0 million cash milestone payment in 2020 following the completion of the NUSTENDI® Marketing Authorisation Applications ("MAA"). The Company is responsible for supplying DSE with certain manufacturing supply of the API or bulk tablets. The Company is also eligible to receive an additional regulatory milestone payment of either $200 million or $300 million upon the grant of the marketing authorisation in the European Union for the CV risk reduction label, depending on the range of relative risk reduction in the CLEAR Outcomes study. Refer to Note 5 "Commitments and Contingencies" for further information. In addition, the Company is eligible to receive additional sales milestone payments related to total net sales achievements for DSE in the DSE Territory. Finally, the Company receives tiered fifteen percent (15%) to twenty-five percent (25%) royalties on net DSE Territory sales.
The agreement calls for both parties to participate in a Joint Collaboration Committee (the “DSE JCC”). The DSE JCC is comprised of executive management from each company and the Company will lead in all aspects related to development and DSE will lead in all aspects related to commercialization in the DSE Territory.
Collaboration Revenue
In the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, the Company recognized collaboration revenue of approximately $7.1 million and $5.3 million related to royalty revenue from DSE from the sales of NILEMDO® and NUSTENDI as well as the sales of bulk tablets to DSE pursuant to the supply agreement that was executed with DSE.
All remaining future potential milestone amounts were not included in the transaction price, as they were all determined to be fully constrained following the concepts of ASC 606 due to the fact that such amounts hinge on development activities, regulatory approvals and sales-based milestones. Additionally, the Company expects that any consideration related to sales-based milestones will be recognized when the subsequent sales occur.
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Otsuka Agreement Terms
On April 17, 2020, the Company entered into a license and collaboration agreement (the "Otsuka Agreement") with Otsuka. Pursuant to the Otsuka Agreement, the Company granted Otsuka exclusive development and commercialization rights to NEXLETOL and NEXLIZET in Japan. Otsuka will be responsible for all development, regulatory, and commercialization activities in Japan. In addition, Otsuka will fund all clinical development costs associated with the program in Japan.
Pursuant to the agreement, the consideration consists of a $60.0 million upfront cash payment and the Company will be eligible to receive additional payments of up to $450.0 million if certain regulatory and commercial milestones are achieved by Otsuka. The potential future milestone payments include up to $20.0 million upon first JNDA submissions in the Otsuka Territory, up to $70.0 million upon the first NHI Price Listing for NEXLETOL in the Otsuka Territory, and up to $50.0 million upon the achievement of the primary major adverse cardiovascular events (“MACE”) in the CLEAR Outcomes study and the CV risk reduction rate on the U.S. label, depending on the range of relative risk reduction in the CLEAR Outcomes study. In addition, the Company is eligible to receive additional sales milestone payments up to $310.0 million related to total net sales achievements for Otsuka in Japan. Finally, the Company will receive tiered fifteen percent (15%) to thirty percent (30%) royalties on net sales in Japan.
Collaboration Revenue
The Company considered the guidance under ASC 606 and concluded that the agreement was in the scope of ASC 606. The Company did not have any collaboration revenue from the Otsuka Agreement during the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022.
All future potential milestone amounts were not included in the transaction price, as they were all determined to be fully constrained following the concepts of ASC 606 due to the fact that such amounts hinge on development activities, regulatory approvals and sales-based milestones. Additionally, the Company expects that any consideration related to royalties and sales-based milestones will be recognized when the subsequent sales occur.
The Company has not yet recognized any revenue for milestone payments as the related regulatory and commercial milestones have not yet been achieved.
DS Agreement Terms
In April 2021, the Company entered into a license and collaboration agreement with Daiichi Sankyo Co. Ltd (the "DS Agreement"). Pursuant to the DS Agreement, the Company granted DS exclusive rights to develop and commercialize bempedoic acid and the bempedoic acid / ezetimibe combination tablet in South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Thailand, Vietnam, Brazil, Macao, Cambodia and Myanmar (collectively the "DS Territory"). The agreement allows for potential expansion across geographies including Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, UAE, Qatar, Bahrain, Yemen, Colombia and other Latin American countries. Except for certain development activities in South Korea and Taiwan, DS will be responsible for development and commercialization in these territories. In addition, DS will fund all development costs associated with the program in the DS Territory. Pursuant to the agreement, the consideration consists of a $30.0 million upfront cash payment that is non-refundable, non-reimbursable and non-creditable. The Company also will be eligible to receive additional one-time payments of up to $175.0 million if certain commercial milestones are achieved by DS. Also, the Company will receive tiered royalties of five percent (5%) to twenty percent (20%) of net sales in the DS Territory.

Collaboration Revenue
The Company considered the guidance under ASC 606 and concluded that the agreement was in the scope of ASC 606. The Company concluded that the upfront payment of $30.0 million should be included in the transaction price and related to the following performance obligations under the agreement: 1) the license to the Company’s intellectual property and 2) the obligation to provide ongoing development activities. The Company used the adjusted market assessment approach in determining the standalone selling price of the Company’s intellectual property and the expected cost plus margin approach in determining the standalone selling price of the Company’s obligation to provide ongoing development activities. For the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, the Company recognized $0.2 million and $0.2 million, respectively of collaboration revenue related to the ongoing regulatory and development activities. The remaining $0.5 million of the upfront payment was deferred as of March 31, 2023 due to an on-going performance obligation related to the developmental activities in South Korea and Taiwan. This deferred revenue will be recognized ratably over the period leading up to the completion of these developmental activities.
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All future potential milestone amounts were not included in the transaction price, as they were all determined to be fully constrained following the concepts of ASC 606 due to the fact that such amounts hinge on development activities, regulatory approvals and sales-based milestones. Additionally, the Company expects that any consideration related to royalties and sales-based milestones will be recognized when the subsequent sales occur.
4. Inventories, net
Inventories, net consist of the following (in thousands):
March 31, 2023December 31, 2022
Raw materials$35,090 $26,558 
Work in process1,697 6,548 
Finished goods2,565 2,095 
$39,352 $35,201 
5. Commitments and Contingencies
On March 4, 2023, the Company announced the full results from its Cholesterol Lowering via Bempedoic acid, an ACL-Inhibiting Regimen (CLEAR) Outcomes trial. Based on the terms of the contract with DSE, the Company is eligible for partner milestone payments upon inclusion of cardiovascular risk reduction data in the EU label, for which payment is tied to the magnitude of the risk percentage reduction included in the label (among other requirements) and ranges from $200 million for the inclusion of cardiovascular risk reduction in the EU label that correlates with a relative risk reduction rate that, based on the CLEAR Outcomes data, is equal or greater than 15% but less than 20%, to $300 million if such risk reduction in the EU label that correlates with a relative risk reduction rate is equal or greater than 20%. Based on the CLEAR Outcomes data, the Company believes it would be entitled to receive $300 million in partner milestone payments upon inclusion of cardiovascular risk reduction data in the EU label.

The Company has had communications with DSE regarding potential milestone payments in which DSE has conveyed that it disagrees with the Company’s assessment that the CLEAR Outcomes data would support the Company’s right to receive any milestone payments upon inclusion of certain required cardiovascular risk reduction data in the EU label. Even if the Company is successful in enforcing its rights, there could be a delay in the Company’s receipt of the milestone payments as a result of any dispute relating to such payments. Any failure to receive or any delay in receipt of the milestone payments may significantly impact the Company’s future capital needs, ability to recognize revenue for the milestone upon inclusion of cardiovascular risk reduction data in the EU label, and ability to fund operations.

On March 27, 2023, the Company filed a complaint in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York seeking declaratory judgment against DSE regarding the Company’s right to receive a $300 million milestone payment upon inclusion of cardiovascular risk reduction in the EU label that correlates with a relative risk reduction rate of at least 20%, based on the CLEAR Outcomes trial demonstrating significant cardiovascular risk reductions.

On May 4, 2023, the Company filed an amended complaint against DSE in the Southern District of New York. The complaint seeks a judicial declaration, on an expedited basis, that DSE is contractually required to make a $300 million milestone payment to the Company upon applicable regulatory approval.

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6. Investments
The following table summarizes the Company’s cash equivalents and short-term investments (in thousands):
March 31, 2023
Amortized
Cost
Gross Unrealized GainsGross Unrealized LossesEstimated
Fair
Value
Cash equivalents:
Money market funds$113,566 $ $ $113,566 
Certificates of deposit401   401 
Short-term investments:
U.S. treasury notes17,428  (1)17,427 
Total$131,395 $ $(1)$131,394 
December 31, 2022
Amortized
Cost
Gross Unrealized GainsGross Unrealized LossesEstimated
Fair
Value
Cash equivalents:
Money market funds$105,078 $ $ $105,078 
U.S. treasury notes4,994 1  4,995 
Certificates of deposit401   401 
Short-term investments:
U.S. treasury notes42,089 2 (5)42,086 
Total$152,562 $3 $(5)$152,560 
During the three months ended March 31, 2023 and March 31, 2022, other income, net in the statements of operations includes interest income on investments of $0.9 million and $0.3 million. During the three months ended March 31, 2023, other income, net in the statements of operations includes accretion of premiums and discounts on investments of $0.3 million. During the three months ended March 31, 2022, other income, net in the statements of operations includes amortization of premiums and discounts on investments of $0.2 million.
There were no unrealized gains or losses on investments reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) to other income in the statements of operations during the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022.
In the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, there were no allowances for credit losses and all unrealized gains (losses) for available-for-sale securities were recognized in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). As of March 31, 2023, the Company had no accrued interest receivables.
7. Fair Value Measurements
The Company follows accounting guidance that emphasizes that fair value is a market-based measurement, not an entity-specific measurement. Fair value is defined as “the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.” Fair value measurements are defined on a three level hierarchy:
Level 1 inputs:    Quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in active markets;
Level 2 inputs:Observable inputs other than Level 1 prices, such as quoted market prices for similar assets or liabilities or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by market data; and
Level 3 inputs:Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and require the reporting entity to develop assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability.
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The following table presents the Company’s financial assets that have been measured at fair value on a recurring basis (in thousands):
DescriptionTotalLevel 1Level 2Level 3
March 31, 2023
Assets:
Money market funds$113,566 $113,566 $ $ 
Certificates of deposit401 401   
U.S. treasury notes17,427 17,427   
Total assets at fair value$131,394 $131,394 $ $ 
December 31, 2022
Assets:
Money market funds$105,078 $105,078 $ $ 
Certificates of deposit401 401   
U.S. treasury notes47,081 47,081   
Total assets at fair value$152,560 $152,560 $ $ 
There were no transfers between Levels 1, 2 or 3 during the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022.
8. Liability Related to the Revenue Interest Purchase Agreement
On June 26, 2019, the Company entered into a Revenue Interest Purchase Agreement ("RIPA") with Oberland, as agent for purchasers party thereto (the “Purchasers”), and the Purchasers named therein, to obtain financing in respect to the commercialization and further development of bempedoic acid and the bempedoic acid / ezetimibe combination tablet and other working capital needs. Pursuant to the RIPA, the Company received $125.0 million at closing, less certain issuance costs. The Company was entitled to receive up to approximately $75.0 million in subsequent installments subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the RIPA: (i) $25.0 million upon certain regulatory approval of its product candidates and (ii) $50.0 million, at the Company’s option, upon reaching $100.0 million trailing worldwide six-month net sales any time prior to December 31, 2021 (the “Third Payment”). In March 2020, the Company received $25.0 million from Oberland upon receiving regulatory approval of NEXLETOL.
As consideration for such payments, the Purchasers will have a right to receive certain revenue interests (the “Revenue Interests”) from the Company based upon net sales of the Company’s certain products, once approved, which will be tiered payments initially ranging from 2.5% to 7.5% of the Company’s net sales in the covered territory (the “Covered Territory”); provided that if annual net sales equal or exceed the Sales Threshold and if the Purchasers receive 100% of their invested capital by December 31, 2024, the revenue interest rate will be decreased to a single rate of 0.4% of the Company’s net sales in the Covered Territory beginning on January 1, 2025. If the Third Payment is drawn down by the Company, the applicable royalty rates will increase by one-third. The Covered Territory is the United States, but is subject to expand to include the world-wide net sales if the Company’s annual U.S. net sales are less than $350.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. The U.S. net sales milestone thresholds are not to be taken as financial guidance. The Purchasers’ rights to receive the Revenue Interests shall terminate on the date on which the Purchasers have received Revenue Interests payments of 195% of the then aggregate purchase price (the “Cumulative Purchaser Payments”) paid to the Company, unless the RIPA is terminated earlier.
Under the RIPA, the Company has an option (the “Call Option”) to terminate the RIPA and repurchase future Revenue Interests at any time upon advance written notice. Additionally, the Purchasers have an option (the “Put Option”) to terminate the RIPA and to require the Company to repurchase future Revenue Interests upon enumerated events such as a bankruptcy event, an uncured material breach, a material adverse effect or a change of control.
In addition, the RIPA contains various representations and warranties, information rights, non-financial covenants, indemnification obligations and other provisions that are customary for a transaction of this nature.

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RIPA Amendments

On April 26, 2021, the Company entered into Amendment No. 2 (the “RIPA Amendment 2”) to the RIPA with Oberland, as agent for the purchaser parties thereto. Pursuant to the RIPA Amendment 2, Oberland waived the original trailing six-month world-wide net sales condition to the third installment payment under the RIPA and released the final $50 million payment payable to the Company under the terms of the RIPA. The Company and Oberland also agreed to amend additional terms of the RIPA such that the purchasers will have a right to receive certain revenue interests (the “Revenue Interests”) from the Company based on net sales of the Company’s certain products, once approved, which will be tiered payments ranging from 3.33% to 10% (the “Third Payment Applicable Percentage”) of the Company’s net sales in the covered territory (the “Covered Territory”); provided that (a) prior to December 31, 2024, with respect to each country defined in the Daiichi Territory, if the percentage of net sales that Company receives from Daiichi (the “Receivables Percentage”) is less than the Third Payment Applicable Percentage, then the Revenue Interest for such country payable to the purchasers will be equal to the Receivables Percentages, (b) if annual net sales equal or exceed $350 million and if the Purchasers receive 100% of their invested capital (Cumulative Purchaser Payments") by December 31, 2024, the revenue interest rate will be decreased to a single rate of 3.33% of the Company’s net sales in the Covered Territory for all subsequent calendar quarters and (c) if the Purchasers receive Revenue Interest payments less than 100% of Cumulative Purchaser Payments by December 31, 2024, the Third Payment Applicable Percentage will be increased to a single rate of the Company’s net sales that would have provided 100% of Cumulative Purchaser Payments had such rate applied from the initial funding by the Purchasers. The Covered Territory was originally the United States, but has been expanded to worldwide for all calendar years beginning on or after January 1, 2022.
Under the RIPA Amendment 2, the Company has an option (the “Call Option”) to terminate the RIPA and repurchase future Revenue Interests at any time upon advance written notice. Additionally, the Purchasers have an option (the “Put Option”) to terminate the RIPA and to require the Company to repurchase future Revenue Interests upon enumerated events such as a bankruptcy event, an uncured material breach, a material adverse effect or a change of control. If the Put Option or the Call Option are exercised, the required repurchase price will be 200% of the Cumulative Purchaser Payments (minus all payments Company has made to the Purchasers in connection with the Revenue Interests), if such option is exercised prior to the third anniversary of the closing date, and 225% of the Cumulative Purchaser Payments (minus all payments Company has made to the Purchasers in connection with the Revenue Interests), if such option is exercised thereafter.
On May 16, 2021, the Company entered into an Amendment to the Security Agreement and Waiver ("Amendment and Waiver") with the same parties to the Security Agreement, by and among the Company, Eiger Partners II LP (the "Purchaser") and Eiger III SA LLC (the "Purchaser Agent"), dated as of June 26, 2019 (the "Security Agreement"). Pursuant to the Amendment and Waiver, if (i) the net revenue from sales of NEXLETOL and NEXLIZET and certain other products in the United States (as reported in the Company’s financial statements as “product sales, net” in accordance with GAAP and excluding, for the avoidance of doubt, upfront or milestone payments and other collaboration revenue) (the “Specified Net Revenue”) for the calendar quarter ended September 30, 2021 does not exceed $15.0 million, or (ii) the Specified Net Revenue for any calendar quarter ending after September 30, 2021 does not exceed $15.0 million, then the Company shall deposit $50.0 million in a deposit account that is subject to a block account control agreement in favor of the Purchase Agent, no later than the earlier of (x) the date the Specified Net Revenue for such calendar quarter has been determined and (y) 45 days after the last day of such calendar quarter. Since the Specified Net Revenue for the calendar quarter ended September 30, 2021 did not exceed $15.0 million, the Company deposited $50.0 million in a deposit account that is subject to a block account control agreement, which is classified as restricted cash on the balance sheets. The Purchaser Agent shall have sole dominion and control over all funds deposited in the deposited account and such funds may be withdrawn therefrom only with the consent of the Purchaser Agent. Upon the occurrence and during the continuance of a Put Option Event, the Purchaser Agent shall have the right to apply amounts held in the deposit account in payment of certain secured obligations in the manner provided for in the Security Agreement. The Amendment and Wavier does not substitute, replace or release the Pledgors from any other obligations under the RIPA or Security Agreement.
On November 23, 2022, the Company entered into Waiver and Amendment No. 3 to Revenue Interest Purchase Agreement and Amendment No. 2 to Security Agreement (the “RIPA Amendment 3”), by and among the Company, the Purchasers and the Purchaser Agent, which amends (i) the Revenue Interest Purchase Agreement, by and among the Company, the Purchasers, and the Purchaser Agent, dated effective as of June 26, 2019 (as amended by Amendment No. 1 to Revenue Interest Purchase Agreement dated as of November 9, 2020 and Amendment No. 2 to Revenue Interest Purchase Agreement dated as of April 26, 2021, and as may be further amended, restated, supplemented or modified from time to time, the “RIPA”) and (ii) the Security Agreement, by the Company in favor of the Purchaser Agent, dated as of June 28, 2019 (as amended by the Amendment to Security Agreement and Waiver by and among the Company, the Purchaser and the Purchaser Agent, effective as of May 16, 2021, and as may be further amended, restated, supplemented or modified from time to time, the “Security Agreement”). Pursuant to the RIPA Amendment 3, among other things, (a) the Company agreed to make a one-time partial call payment with regards to the Revenue Interests (as defined in the RIPA) in an amount equal to $50 million from the restricted cash account (the “Partial Call”), (b) the amount of the Cumulative Purchaser Payments (as defined in the RIPA) was reduced to
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$177,777,778, and (c) the Purchasers and Purchaser Agent waived certain claimed defaults, breaches and Put Option Events under the RIPA and other related documents that may have occurred as a result of the Company’s opening of a new bank account.
In accordance with the guidance in ASC 470‑50, “Debt—Modifications and Extinguishments,” the RIPA Amendment 3 was accounted for as a debt modification. The amendment resulted in a less than $0.1 million loss on modification of debt, consisting of third-party fees associated with the transaction, which is included in selling, general, and administrative expenses in the statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2022.
In connection with the arrangement, as of March 31, 2023, the Company has recorded a liability, referred to as the “Revenue interest liability” on the balance sheet, of $251.8 million, net of $0.3 million of capitalized issuance costs in connection with the RIPA, which will be amortized to interest expense over the estimated term of the RIPA. The total redemption amount is equal to 225% of the Cumulative Purchaser Payments, or $400 million. At March 31, 2023, the remaining redemption amount is $385.0 million. The Company imputes interest expense associated with this liability using the effective interest rate method. The effective interest rate is calculated based on the rate that would enable the debt to be repaid in full over the anticipated life of the arrangement. The interest rate on this liability may vary during the term of the agreement depending on a number of factors, including the level of forecasted net sales. The Company evaluates the interest rate quarterly based on its current net sales forecasts utilizing the prospective method.
A significant increase or decrease in future net sales will materially impact the revenue interest liability, interest expense and the time period for repayment. The Company recorded approximately $11.3 million and $11.0 million in interest expense related to this arrangement for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
The repayment of the RIPA to Oberland does not have a fixed repayment schedule, rather it will be completely repaid and extinguished when the Company has repaid 225% of the Cumulative Purchaser Payments. Since there is not a fixed repayment schedule, the Company does not project its future repayments by year. Each period, the Company estimates the future expected sales of its products in the covered territory and determines the effective annual imputed interest rate, which updates and changes the timing of the Company’s payments. Under the terms of the agreement, every $100 million of net sales generated, less than or equal to $250 million in an annual aggregate year, would result in a repayment obligation of approximately $10.0 million or 10.0% at the stated repayment rate in the first year. Annual net sales for a calendar year exceeding $250 million would result in a repayment obligation of approximately $3.3 million or 3.3% for every $100 million of sales above the threshold. As the U.S. net sales were less than $350 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, the Covered Territory was expanded to include worldwide sales beginning in 2022. The Company’s repayments of the RIPA are directly tied to the growth of its net sales, and as the Company’s net sales grow, the Company expects the related repayments of the RIPA to grow as well. The Company currently expects to repay $26.9 million in the next twelve months.
The effective annual imputed interest rate is 18.2% as of March 31, 2023. Payments made to Oberland as a result of the Company’s net sales will reduce the revenue interest liability.
The following table summarizes the revenue interest liability activity during the three months ended March 31, 2023:
(in thousands)
Total revenue interest liability at December 31, 2022$243,605 
Interest expense recognized11,320 
Revenue Interests payments(3,106)
Total revenue interest liability at March 31, 2023$251,819 

9. Convertible Notes
In November 2020, the Company issued $280.0 million aggregate principal amount of 4.0% senior subordinated convertible notes due November 2025. The net proceeds the Company received from the offering was approximately $271.1 million, after deducting the initial purchasers’ discounts and commissions and offering expenses payable by the Company (the "Convertible Notes") of $8.9 million. The Company used approximately $46.0 million of the net proceeds from the offering of the notes to pay the cost of the Capped Call (as defined below) and $55.0 million of the net proceeds from the offering of the initial notes to finance the Prepaid Forward (as defined below). The Convertible Notes are the Company's senior unsecured obligations and mature on November 15, 2025 (the “Maturity Date”), unless earlier repurchased or converted into shares of common stock under certain circumstances described below. The Convertible Notes are convertible into shares of the
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Company’s common stock, can be repurchased for cash, or a combination thereof, at the Company’s election, at an initial conversion rate of 30.2151 shares of common stock per $1,000 principal amount of the Convertible Notes, which is equivalent to an initial conversion price of approximately $33.096 per share of common stock, subject to adjustment. The Company will pay interest on the Convertible Notes semi-annually in arrears on May 15 and November 15 of each year.
The Convertible Notes are general unsecured obligations of the Company that are subordinated in right of payment to indebtedness, obligations and other liabilities under the Company’s RIPA, the revenue interests issued pursuant to such agreement, and any refinancing of the foregoing.
Holders may convert their Convertible Notes at their option at any time prior to the close of business on the business day immediately preceding August 15, 2025 in the following circumstances: (1) during any calendar quarter commencing after the calendar quarter ended on March 31, 2021 (and only during such calendar quarter), if the last reported sale price per share of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share (“common stock”), is greater than or equal to 130% of the conversion price for each of at least 20 trading days, whether or not consecutive, during the 30 consecutive trading days ending on, and including, the last trading day of the immediately preceding calendar quarter; (2) during the five business days after any five consecutive trading day period (such five consecutive trading day period, the “measurement period”) in which the trading price per $1,000 principal amount of notes for each trading day of the measurement period was less than 98% of the product of the last reported sale price per share of the Company’s common stock and the conversion rate for the notes on each such trading day; (3) if the Company calls such notes for redemption, any such notes that have been called for redemption may be converted at any time prior to the close of business on the second scheduled trading day immediately preceding the redemption date, but only with respect to the notes called for redemption; and (4) upon the occurrence of specified corporate events, as provided in the Indenture. On or after August 15, 2025, to the close of business on the second scheduled trading day immediately before the maturity date, holders may convert all or any portion of their notes at the applicable conversion rate at any time at the option of the holder regardless of the foregoing conditions.
In addition, following certain corporate events or following issuance of a notice of redemption, the Company will, in certain circumstances, increase the conversion rate for a holder who elects to convert its notes in connection with such a corporate event or to convert its notes called (or deemed called) for redemption during the related redemption period, as the case may be.
The Convertible Notes will be redeemable, in whole or in part, at the Company’s option at any time, and from time to time, on or after November 20, 2023 and before the 41st scheduled trading day immediately before the maturity date, at a cash redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the notes to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, but only if the last reported sale price per share of the Company’s common stock has been at least 130% of the conversion price then in effect for at least 20 trading days (whether or not consecutive), including the trading day immediately preceding the date the Company sends the related redemption notice, during any 30 consecutive trading day period ending on, and including, the trading day immediately preceding the date on which the Company sends such redemption notice. No sinking fund is provided for the notes. If the Company redeems less than all the outstanding notes, at least $125.0 million aggregate principal amount of notes must be outstanding and not subject to redemption as of the relevant redemption notice date.
If the Company undergoes a “fundamental change” (as defined in the Indenture), holders may require the Company to repurchase their notes for cash all or any portion of their notes at a fundamental change repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest, to, but excluding, the fundamental change repurchase date. The Indenture includes customary terms and covenants, including certain events of default.
On October 22, 2021, the Company entered into a privately negotiated exchange agreement (the “Exchange Agreement”) with two co-managed holders (the “Holders”) of its Convertible Notes. Under the terms of the Exchange Agreement the Holders agreed to exchange (the “Exchange”) with the Company $15.0 million aggregate principal amount of the Convertible Notes held in the aggregate by them (and accrued interest thereon) for shares of the Company’s common stock. Pursuant to the Exchange Agreement, the number of shares of common stock to be issued by the Company to the Holders upon consummation of the Exchange was determined based upon the volume-weighted-average-price per share of common stock, subject to a floor of $5.62 per share, during the five trading-day averaging period, commencing on the trading day immediately following the date of the Exchange Agreement. The Exchange closed on November 3, 2021, with 1,094,848 shares of the Company's common stock being exchanged.
As of March 31, 2023, the principal amount of convertible notes was $265.0 million, and the unamortized debt discount and issuance costs were $4.7 million, for a net carrying amount of $260.3 million.

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The Company recorded $3.1 million of interest expense during the three months ended March 31, 2023, and $3.0 million of interest expense during the three months ended March 31, 2022, relating to the cash interest on the convertible notes due semi-annually and amortization of the debt issuance costs.

As of March 31, 2023, no Convertible Notes were convertible pursuant to their terms. The estimated fair value of the Convertible Notes was $123.2 million as of March 31, 2023 and $145.9 million as of December 31, 2022. The estimated fair value of the Convertible Notes was determined through consideration of quoted market prices. As of March 31, 2023, the if-converted value of the Convertible Notes did not exceed the principal value of those notes.

Capped Call Transactions
In connection with the offering of the Convertible Notes, the Company entered into privately-negotiated capped call transactions with one of the initial purchasers of the convertible notes or its affiliate and certain other financial institutions. The Company used approximately $46.0 million of the net proceeds from the offering of the Convertible Notes to pay the cost of the capped call transactions. The capped call transactions are expected generally to reduce potential dilution to the Company’s common stock upon any conversion of the Convertible Notes and/or offset any cash payments the Company is required to make in excess of the principal amount of converted notes, as the case may be, in the event that the market value per share of the Company’s common stock, as measured under the terms of the capped call transactions at the time of exercise, is greater than the strike price of the capped call transactions (which initially corresponds to the initial conversion price of the Convertible Notes, and is subject to certain adjustments), with such reduction and/or offset subject to a cap initially equal to approximately $55.16 (which represents a premium of approximately 100% over the last reported sale price of the Company’s common stock on November 11, 2020), subject to certain adjustments. The capped call transactions are separate transactions, entered into by the Company and are not part of the terms of the Convertible Notes.
Given that the transactions meet certain accounting criteria, the convertible note capped call transactions are recorded in stockholders’ equity, and they are not accounted for as derivatives and are not remeasured each reporting period. As of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the Company had not purchased any shares under the convertible note capped call transactions.
Prepaid Forward
In connection with the offering of the Convertible Notes, the Company entered into a prepaid forward stock repurchase transaction (“Prepaid Forward”) with a financial institution (“Forward Counterparty”). Pursuant to the Prepaid Forward, the Company used approximately $55.0 million of the net proceeds from the offering of the Convertible Notes to fund the Prepaid Forward. The aggregate number of shares of the Company’s common stock underlying the Prepaid Forward was approximately 1,994,198. The expiration date for the Prepaid Forward is November 15, 2025, although it may be settled earlier in whole or in part. Upon settlement of the Prepaid Forward, at expiration or upon any early settlement, the Forward Counterparty will deliver to the Company the number of shares of common stock underlying the Prepaid Forward or the portion thereof being settled early. The shares purchased under the Prepaid Forward are treated as treasury stock and not outstanding for purposes of the calculation of basic and diluted earnings per share, but will remain outstanding for corporate law purposes, including for purposes of any future stockholders’ votes, until the Forward Counterparty delivers the shares underlying the Prepaid Forward to the Company. As of March 31, 2023, 165,540 shares had been delivered to the Company. The Company’s Prepaid Forward hedge transaction exposes the Company to credit risk to the extent that its counterparty may be unable to meet the terms of the transaction. The Company mitigates this risk by limiting its counterparty to a major financial institution.
10. Other Accrued Liabilities
Other accrued liabilities consist of the following (in thousands):
March 31,
2023
December 31,
2022
Accrued compensation$5,565 $9,053 
Accrued variable consideration21,313 21,987 
Accrued professional fees3,446 2,547 
Accrued interest on convertible notes3,975 1,325 
Accrued other122 279 
Total other accrued liabilities$34,421 $35,191 
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11. Stock Compensation
2022 Stock Option and Incentive Plan
In May 2022, the Company's stockholders approved the 2022 Stock Option and Incentive Plan (the "2022 Plan"). The number of shares of common stock available for awards under the 2022 Plan was set to 4,400,000, with any shares underlying awards that are forfeited, canceled, held back upon exercise of an option or settlement of an award to cover the exercise price or tax withholding, reacquired by the Company prior to vesting, satisfied without the issuance or shares, or otherwise terminated (other than by exercise) under the 2022 Plan may be added back to the shares of common stock available for issuance under the 2022 Plan. The 2022 Plan provides for the award of stock options (both incentive and non-qualified options), stock appreciation rights, restricted stock, restricted stock units, unrestricted stock, cash-based awards, and dividend equivalent rights. Following the approval of the 2022 Plan, no further awards will be issued under the Company’s 2013 Stock Option and Incentive Plan (the “2013 Plan”).

Employee Stock Purchase Plan
In April 2020, the board of directors approved the Esperion Therapeutics, Inc. 2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the "ESPP") which was approved by the Company's shareholders on May 28, 2020. The ESPP allows eligible employees to authorize payroll deductions of up to 10% of their base salary or wages up to $25,000 annually to be applied toward the purchase of shares of the Company's common stock on the last trading day of the offering period. Participating employees will purchase shares of the Company's common stock at a discount of up to 15% on the lesser of the closing price of the Company's common stock on the NASDAQ Global Select Market (i) on the first trading day of the offering period or (ii) the last day of any offering period. Offering periods under the ESPP will generally be in six months increments, commencing on September 1 and March 1 of each calendar year with the administrator having the right to establish different offering periods. In the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, the Company recognized $0.1 million and approximately $0.1 million of stock compensation expense related to the ESPP. As of March 31, 2023, there have been 435,076 shares issued and 389,924 shares reserved for future issuance under the ESPP.
Stock Options
The following table summarizes the activity relating to the Company’s options to purchase common stock for the three months ended March 31, 2023:
Number of OptionsWeighted-Average Exercise Price Per ShareWeighted-Average Remaining Contractual Term (Years)Aggregate Intrinsic Value
(in thousands)
Outstanding at December 31, 20223,842,737 $27.75 4.86$1,658 
Granted1,154,300 $4.23 
Forfeited or expired(622,585)$38.72 
Exercised $ 
Outstanding at March 31, 20234,374,452 $19.98 6.18$ 
Vested and expected to vest at March 31, 20234,374,452 $19.98 6.18$ 
Exercisable at March 31, 20232,194,004 $33.44 2.99$ 
Stock-based compensation related to stock options was $1.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023, including $0.1 million that was capitalized into inventory, and $1.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022, including $0.1 million that was capitalized into inventory. As of March 31, 2023, there was $9.0 million of unrecognized stock-based compensation expense related to unvested options, which will be recognized over a weighted-average period of 2.9 years.
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Performance-Based Stock Options ("PBSOs")
In 2021, the Company granted PBSOs from the 2013 Plan that vest upon various performance-based milestones as set forth in the individual grant agreements, such as achievement of predetermined clinical or regulatory outcomes. The actual number of units (if any) received under these awards will depend on continued employment and actual performance over the performance period. Each quarter, the Company updates their assessment of the probability that the performance milestone will be achieved. The Company amortizes the fair value of the PBSOs based on the expected performance period to achieve the performance milestone. The Company expects the performance criteria to be met.
In 2022, the Company granted PBSOs from the 2022 Plan that vest upon various performance-based milestones as set forth in the individual grant agreements, such as achievement of predetermined clinical or regulatory outcomes. The actual number of units (if any) received under these awards will depend on continued employment and actual performance over the performance period. Each quarter, the Company updates their assessment of the probability that the performance milestone will be achieved. The Company amortizes the fair value of the PBSOs based on the expected performance period to achieve the performance milestone. The Company expects the performance criteria to be met.

The following table summarizes the activity relating to the Company’s PBSOs for the three months ended March 31, 2023:
Number of OptionsWeighted-Average Exercise Price Per ShareWeighted-Average Remaining Contractual Term (Years)Aggregate Intrinsic Value
(in thousands)
Outstanding at December 31, 2022499,200 $6.73 9.32$12 
Granted $ 
Forfeited or expired(65,250)$6.76 
Exercised $ 
Outstanding at March 31, 2023433,950 $6.72 8.86$ 
Vested and expected to vest at March 31, 2023433,950 $6.72 8.86$ 
Exercisable at March 31, 202348,100 $8.94 6.62$ 

Stock-based compensation related to PBSOs was $0.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and $0.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022. As of March 31, 2023, there was approximately $1.0 million of unrecognized stock-based compensation expense related to unvested PBSOs, which will be recognized over a weighted-average period of approximately 1.2 years.
Restricted Stock Units (or RSUs)
The following table summarizes the activity relating to the Company’s RSUs for the three months ended March 31, 2023:
Number of
RSUs
Weighted-Average
Fair Value Per
Share
Outstanding and unvested December 31, 20221,768,185 $8.80 
Granted1,622,485 $4.13 
Forfeited(101,881)$9.24 
Vested(171,392)$9.23 
Outstanding and unvested March 31, 20233,117,397 $6.34 
Stock-based compensation related to RSUs was approximately $1.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023, including $0.1 million that was capitalized into inventory, and approximately $1.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022, including $0.1 million that was capitalized into inventory. As of March 31, 2023, there was $18.6 million of unrecognized stock-based compensation expense related to unvested RSUs, which will be recognized over a weighted-average period of 3.0 years.
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Performance-based Restricted Stock Units ("PBRSUs")
In 2021, the Company granted PBRSUs from the 2013 Plan that vest upon various performance-based milestones as set forth in the individual grant agreements, such as achievement of predetermined milestones based on the Company's U.S. net product sales or clinical or regulatory outcomes. The actual number of units (if any) received under these awards will depend on continued employment and actual performance over the performance period. Each quarter, the Company updates their assessment of the probability that the performance milestone will be achieved. The Company amortizes the fair value of the PBRSUs based on the expected performance period to achieve the performance milestone. The fair value of the PBRSUs is based on the quoted market price of the Company's common stock on the date of grant. The Company expects the performance criteria to be met.
The following table summarizes the activity relating to the Company's PBRSUs for the three months ended March 31, 2023:
Number of
PBRSUs
Weighted-average fair value per share
Outstanding December 31, 2022461,250 $9.50 
Granted $ 
Forfeited(69,150)$12.65 
Vested(200,725)$8.94 
Outstanding and unvested March 31, 2023191,375 $8.94 
Stock-based compensation related to the PBRSUs was $0.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023, including less than $0.1 million that was capitalized into inventory, and $0.8 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022, including $0.1 million that was capitalized into inventory. As of March 31, 2023, there was approximately $0.8 million of unrecognized stock-based compensation expense related to unvested PBRSUs, which will be recognized over a weighted-average period of approximately 1.2 years.
12. Income Taxes
There was no provision for income taxes for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, because the Company has incurred annual operating losses since inception. At March 31, 2023, the Company continues to conclude that it is not more likely than not that the Company will realize the benefit of its deferred tax assets due to its history of losses. Accordingly, a full valuation allowance has been applied against the net deferred tax assets.
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13. Stockholders' Deficit

ATM Offering

On April 15, 2022, the Company filed a new registration statement on Form S-3 to replace its prior automatically effective registration statement on Form S-3ASR filed on August 3, 2021, which registers the offering, issuance and sale of up to $239 million of common stock from time to time in “at-the-market” offerings (the “New ATM Program”). On February 21, 2023, the Company terminated the open market sales agreement with Jefferies LLC and entered into a Controlled Equity Offering Sales Agreement with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., as sales agent, to provide for the issuance and sale by the Company of up to $70 million of common stock from time to time in “at-the-market” offerings (the "2023 ATM Program"), pursuant to its existing Form S-3 and the prospectus supplement filed on February 21, 2023. The Company may continue to use the 2023 ATM Program to address potential short-term or long-term funding requirements that may arise. Such program will continue to be subject to the volatility of the price of the Company's common stock and general market conditions. During the year ended December 31, 2022, the Company issued 13,043,797 shares of common stock resulting in net proceeds of approximately $90.8 million after deducting $3.1 million of underwriting discounts and commissions and other expenses, pursuant to the New ATM Program. No shares have been issued under the 2023 ATM Program as of the date of this quarterly report.

Warrants

In connection with an underwriting agreement with H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC ("Wainwright") on December 2, 2021, the Company issued warrants to purchase 36,964,286 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $9.00. The warrants will terminate on December 7, 2023. The warrants were recorded at fair value of $61.9 million to additional-paid-in-capital in accordance with ASC 815-10 based upon the allocation of the proceeds between the common shares issued with the Offering and the warrants.

Registered Direct Offering and Warrant Amendment

On March 19, 2023, the Company entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”) with certain purchasers named therein (the “Purchasers”), pursuant to which the Company agreed to issue and sell, in a registered direct offering (the “Offering”), 12,205,000 shares of its common stock, par value $0.001 per share (the “Common Stock”), pre-funded warrants to purchase up to an aggregate of 20,965,747 shares of Common Stock (the “Pre-Funded Warrants”) in lieu of shares of Common Stock, and warrants to purchase up to 33,170,747 shares of Common Stock (the “Warrants”). The combined purchase price of each share of Common Stock and accompanying Warrant is $1.675 per share. The Warrants expire on September 22, 2026 and have an exercise price of $1.55. The purchase price of each Pre-Funded Warrant is $1.674 (equal to the combined purchase price per share of Common Stock and accompanying Warrant, minus $0.001). The Purchase Agreement contains customary representations, warranties, covenants and indemnification rights and obligations of the Company and the Purchasers. The Offering closed on March 22, 2023. The warrants and pre-funded warrants were recorded at fair value of $22.8 million to additional-paid-in-capital in accordance with ASC 815-10 based upon the allocation of the proceeds between the common shares issued with the Offering and the warrants and pre-funded warrants. The Company estimated the fair value of the warrants using a Black-Scholes option-pricing model, which is based, in part, upon subjective assumptions including but not limited to stock price volatility, the expected life of the warrant, the risk-free interest rate and the fair value of the common stock underlying the warrant. The Company estimates the volatility based on its historical volatility that is in line with the expected remaining life of the warrants. The risk-free interest rate is based on the U.S. Treasury daily rate for a maturity similar to the expected remaining life of the warrants. The expected remaining life of the warrants is assumed to be equivalent to its remaining contractual term. The Company estimated the fair value of the pre-funded warrants based on the market price of the Company's common stock at issuance.

In connection with the Offering, the Company amended, pursuant to Warrant Amendment Agreements (the “Warrant Amendment Agreements”), certain existing warrants to purchase up to an aggregate of 9,024,212 shares of the Company's common stock that were previously issued in December 2021 at an exercise price of $9.00 per share and had an expiration date of December 7, 2023, effective upon the closing of the Offering, such that the amended warrants have a reduced exercise price of $1.55 per share and expire three and one half years following the closing of the Offering, or September 22, 2026, for additional consideration of $0.125 per amended warrant. Based on the change in the fair value of the amended warrants, the Company recorded issuance costs to additional paid-in capital of $2.9 million.

The Company received gross proceeds of approximately $55.5 million from the Offering, before deducting placement agent fees and related offering expenses. The net proceeds to the Company from the Offering, after deducting the placement agent fees and expenses and the Company’s estimated offering expenses of $4.2 million, were approximately $51.3 million. In addition, the Company received approximately $1.2 million as the gross consideration in connection with the Warrant
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Amendment Agreements. The net proceeds of the Warrant Amendment Agreements after deducting placement fees of $0.1 million were approximately $1.1 million.

The following table summarizes the warrants and pre-funded warrants outstanding for the Company as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022:

March 31, 2023December 31, 2022Weighted average exercise price
Warrants outstanding from 2021 agreement, expiring December 7, 202327,940,074 36,964,286 $9.00 
Warrants outstanding from Warrant Amendment Agreements, expiring September 22, 20269,024,212  $1.55 
Warrants outstanding from Purchase Agreement, expiring September 22, 202633,170,747  $1.55 
Pre-funded warrants outstanding, no expiration date20,965,747  $0.001 
Total warrants and pre-funded warrants outstanding91,100,780 36,964,286 

Subsequent to March 31, 2023, on April 24, 2023, 5,865,747 shares of pre-funded warrants were exercised.

14. Net Loss Per Common Share
Basic net loss per share is calculated by dividing net loss by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period, without consideration for common stock equivalents. Pre-Funded Warrants are included in the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted-average number of common stock equivalents outstanding for the period, including shares that potentially could be dilutive if they were exercised or vested during the period, determined using the treasury-stock method. For purposes of this calculation, warrants for common stock, stock options, PBSOs, unvested RSUs and PBRSUs, shares issuable under the ESPP and shares issuable upon conversion of the convertible notes are considered to be common stock equivalents and are only included in the calculation of diluted net loss per share when their effect is dilutive.
The shares outstanding at the end of the respective periods presented below were excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share due to their anti-dilutive effect:
March 31,
20232022
Common shares under option4,374,452 4,101,259 
Common shares under PBSOs433,950 122,700 
Unvested RSUs3,117,397 1,978,717 
Unvested PBRSUs191,375 602,750 
Shares issuable related to the ESPP33,575 40,257 
Shares issuable upon conversion of convertible notes8,007,010 8,007,010 
Warrants70,135,033 36,964,286 
Total potential dilutive shares86,292,792 51,816,979 
15. Statements of Cash Flows and Restricted Cash

The following table provides a reconciliation of cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash presented on the balance sheets to the same amounts presented on the statements of cash flows on March 31, 2023 and 2022 and December 31, 2022 and 2021 (in thousands):

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March 31,
2023
March 31,
2022
December 31,
2022
December 31,
2021
Cash and cash equivalents144,911 $150,364 $124,775 $208,892 
Restricted cash 50,000