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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-Q
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2022
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to       
         
Commission file number: 001-35986
Esperion Therapeutics, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware    26-1870780
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
3891 Ranchero Drive, Suite 150
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
(Address of principal executive office) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:
(734) 887-3903
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class Trading Symbol(s) Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share ESPR 
NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes x  No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes x  No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerx    Accelerated filero
Non-accelerated filer oSmaller reporting company o
Emerging growth company
o
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes   No x
As of May 1, 2022, there were 63,006,619 shares of the registrant’s Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share, outstanding.


Table of Contents
Esperion Therapeutics, Inc.
INDEX
Page
PART I — FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Financial Statements

2

Table of Contents


Esperion Therapeutics, Inc.
Condensed Balance Sheets
(in thousands, except share data)
March 31,
2022
December 31,
2021
(unaudited)
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$150,364 $208,892 
Short-term investments68,138 50,441 
Accounts receivable25,116 22,934 
Prepaid clinical development costs698 1,138 
Inventories, net35,654 34,394 
Other prepaid and current assets10,849 11,173 
Total current assets290,819 328,972 
Restricted cash50,000 50,000 
Property and equipment, net511 664 
Right of use operating lease assets1,467 1,898 
Intangible assets56 56 
Total assets$342,853 $381,590 
Liabilities and stockholders’ equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$26,829 $17,559 
Accrued clinical development costs3,652 7,013 
Other accrued liabilities30,200 30,410 
Revenue interest liability13,392 11,295 
Deferred revenue from collaborations3,795 5,683 
Operating lease liabilities1,217 1,392 
Total current liabilities79,085 73,352 
Convertible notes, net of issuance costs258,678 258,280 
Revenue interest liability253,445 245,744 
Operating lease liabilities263 524 
Deferred revenue from collaborations422 634 
Total liabilities591,893 578,534 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 5)
Stockholders’ equity:
Preferred stock, $0.001 par value; 5,000,000 shares authorized and no shares issued or outstanding as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021
  
Common stock, $0.001 par value; 120,000,000 shares authorized as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021; 63,052,765 shares issued at March 31, 2022 and 62,873,694 shares issued at December 31, 2021
61 61 
Additional paid-in capital969,268 964,401 
Treasury stock, at cost; 1,994,198 shares at March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021
(54,998)(54,998)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(263)(31)
Accumulated deficit(1,163,108)(1,106,377)
Total stockholders’ deficit(249,040)(196,944)
Total liabilities and stockholders’ deficit$342,853 $381,590 
See accompanying notes to the condensed financial statements.
3

Table of Contents
Esperion Therapeutics, Inc.
Condensed Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
(unaudited)

Three Months Ended
March 31,
20222021
Revenues:
Product sales, net$13,354 $6,350 
Collaboration revenue5,482 1,628 
Total Revenues18,836 7,978 
Operating expenses:
Cost of goods sold7,125 1,784 
Research and development24,319 27,954 
Selling, general and administrative30,381 61,064 
Total operating expenses61,825 90,802 
Loss from operations(42,989)(82,824)
Interest expense(14,062)(8,125)
Other income, net320 14 
Net loss$(56,731)$(90,935)
Net loss per common share - basic and diluted$(0.93)$(3.50)
Weighted-average shares outstanding - basic and diluted60,954,75525,991,817
Other comprehensive loss:
Unrealized loss on investments$(232)$ 
Comprehensive loss$(56,963)$(90,935)
See accompanying notes to the condensed financial statements.

4

Table of Contents
Esperion Therapeutics, Inc.
Condensed Statements of Stockholders’ Deficit
(in thousands, except share data)
(unaudited)
Common StockAdditional Paid-In CapitalAccumulated DeficitAccumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)Treasury StockTotal Stockholders' Deficit
SharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 2020
25,916,168 $26 $797,655 $(838,817)$ $(54,998)$(96,134)
Adoption of ASU 2020-06— — (93,475)1,548 — — (91,927)
Balance at January 1, 202125,916,168 26 704,180 (837,269) (54,998)(188,061)
Exercise of stock options172,268 — 2,668 — — — 2,668 
Vesting of restricted stock units43,465 — — — — —  
Vesting of ESPP shares50,818 — 1,183 — — — 1,183 
Stock-based compensation— — 5,751 — — — 5,751 
Net loss— — — (90,935)— — (90,935)
Balance at March 31, 202126,182,719 $26 $713,782 $(928,204)$ $(54,998)$(269,394)

Common StockAdditional Paid-In CapitalAccumulated DeficitAccumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)Treasury StockTotal Stockholders' Deficit
SharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 202160,879,496 $61 $964,401 $(1,106,377)$(31)$(54,998)$(196,944)
Vesting of restricted stock units55,286 — — — — —  
Vesting of ESPP Shares123,785 — 431 — — — 431 
Stock-based compensation— — 4,436 — — — 4,436 
Other comprehensive loss— — — — (232)— (232)
Net loss— — — (56,731)— — (56,731)
Balance at March 31, 202261,058,567 $61 $969,268 $(1,163,108)$(263)$(54,998)$(249,040)
See accompanying notes to the condensed financial statements.
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Esperion Therapeutics, Inc.
Condensed Statements of Cash Flows
(in thousands)
(unaudited)
Three Months Ended March 31,
20222021
Operating activities
Net loss$(56,731)$(90,935)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:
Depreciation expense153 153 
Amortization of premiums and discounts on investments173  
Amortization of debt issuance costs398 400 
Non-cash interest expense related to the revenue interest liability11,015 4,925 
Stock-based compensation expense4,436 5,751 
Changes in assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable(2,182)(4,942)
Prepaids and other assets764 (4,866)
Deferred revenue(2,100)881 
Inventories(1,260)(3,894)
Accounts payable9,393 (21,583)
Other accrued liabilities(3,049)25,042 
Net cash used in operating activities(38,990)(89,068)
Investing activities
Purchases of investments(18,102) 
Net cash used in investing activities(18,102) 
Financing activities
Proceeds from exercise of common stock options 2,668 
Payments on revenue interest liability(1,217)(573)
Payment of issuance costs(219)(50)
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities(1,436)2,045 
Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents(58,528)(87,023)
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period258,892 304,962 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period$200,364 $217,939 
Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information:
Debt issuance costs not yet paid$ $445 
Non cash right of use asset6 4 
See accompanying notes to the condensed financial statements.

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Esperion Therapeutics, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Financial Statements
(unaudited)
1. The Company and Basis of Presentation
Esperion Therapeutics, Inc. ("the Company”) is a pharmaceutical company singularly focused on developing and commercializing accessible, oral, once-daily, non-statin medicines for patients struggling with elevated low density lipoprotein cholesterol ("LDL-C"). Through commercial execution and advancement of the CLEAR Outcomes trial as well as the Company's pre-clinical pipeline, the Company continues to evolve into a differentiated, global cardiometabolic biotech. The Esperion team of lipid experts are dedicated to lowering bad cholesterol through the discovery, development and commercialization of innovative medicines and their combinations with established medicines. The Company's first two products were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ("FDA"), European Medicines Agency ("EMA") and Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Products ("Swissmedic") in 2020. Bempedoic acid and the bempedoic acid / ezetimibe combination tablet are oral, once-daily, non-statin, LDL-C lowering medicines for patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ("ASCVD") or heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia ("HeFH").
The Company's primary activities since incorporation have been conducting research and development activities, including nonclinical, preclinical and clinical testing, performing business and financial planning, recruiting personnel, and raising capital. The Company received approval by the FDA in February 2020 to commercialize NEXLETOL® (bempedoic acid) and NEXLIZET® (bempedoic acid and ezetimibe) tablet in the U.S., and accordingly commenced principal operations on March 30, 2020 with the commercialization of NEXLETOL. The Company is subject to risks and uncertainties which include the need to successfully commercialize its products, research, develop, and clinically test therapeutic products; obtain regulatory approvals for its products; manage its management, commercial and scientific staff; and finance its operations with an ultimate goal of achieving profitable operations.
The Company has sustained annual operating losses since inception and expects such losses to continue over the foreseeable future. The Company's ability to successfully launch, commercialize and generate revenue from NEXLETOL, NEXLIZET, NILEMDO® (bempedoic acid) tablet and NUSTENDI® (bempedoic acid and ezetimibe) tablet has been and may continue to be adversely affected by the economic impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. While management believes current cash resources and future cash received from the Company's net product sales and collaboration agreements with Daiichi Sankyo Europe GmbH ("DSE"), Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. ("Otsuka"), and Daiichi Sankyo Co. Ltd ("DS"), entered into on January 2, 2019, April 17, 2020 and April 26, 2021, respectively, will fund operations for the foreseeable future, management may continue to fund operations and advance the development of the Company's products and product candidates through a combination of collaborations with third parties, strategic alliances, licensing arrangements, permitted debt financings, permitted royalty-based financings, and permitted private and public equity offerings or through other sources. The impact of COVID-19 and the uncertainty around the global pandemic could further impact the commercialization of NEXLETOL and NEXLIZET and the Company’s research and development programs and could result in lower cash flows or higher costs that could further impact the Company’s overall operations and cash needs in the future.
If adequate funds are not available, the Company may not be able to continue the development of its current products or future product candidates, or to commercialize its current or future product candidates, if approved.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying condensed interim financial statements are unaudited and were prepared by the Company in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“GAAP”). In the opinion of management, the Company has made all adjustments, which include only normal recurring adjustments necessary for a fair presentation of the Company’s financial position and results of operations for the interim periods presented. Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified to conform with current year presentation. Certain information and disclosures normally included in the annual financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP, but that is not required for interim reporting purposes, have been condensed or omitted. These condensed interim financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2021, and the notes thereto, which are included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021. The results of operations for the interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for a full year, any other interim periods or any future year or period.
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2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, net revenues, expenses and related disclosures. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company invests its excess cash in bank deposits, money market accounts, and short-term investments. The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of 90 days or less at the time of purchase to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents are reported at fair value.
Restricted Cash
Restricted cash consists of legally restricted amounts held by financial institutions pursuant to contractual arrangements. Pursuant to the Amendment and Waiver (as defined below), the Company deposited $50.0 million in a deposit account that is subject to a block account control agreement. Oberland will have sole control over the funds deposited in the account and such funds may be withdrawn only with the consent of Oberland. Refer to Note 8 "Liability Related to the Revenue Interest Purchase Agreement" for further information on the Amendment and Waiver.
Investments
Investments are considered to be available-for-sale and are carried at fair value. Unrealized gains and losses, if any, are reported in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). The cost of investments classified as available-for-sale are adjusted for the amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts to maturity and recorded in other income, net. Realized gains and losses, if any, are determined using the specific identification method and recorded in other income, net. Investments with original maturities beyond 90 days at the date of purchase and which mature at, or less than twelve months from, the balance sheet date are classified as current. Investments with a maturity beyond twelve months from the balance sheet date are classified as long-term.
Concentration of Risk
The Company enters into a limited number of distribution agreements with distributors and specialty pharmacies. The Company's net product sales are with these customers. As of March 31, 2022, ten customers accounted for all of the Company's net trade receivables and as of December 31, 2021, nine customers accounted for all the Company's net trade receivables.
Revenue Recognition
In accordance with ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, the Company recognizes revenue when a customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for the goods or services provided. To determine revenue recognition for arrangements within the scope of ASC 606, the Company performs the following five steps: identify the contracts with a customer; identify the performance obligations in the contract; determine the transaction price; allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and recognize revenue when or as the entity satisfies a performance obligation. At contract inception the Company assesses the goods or services promised within each contract and determines those that are performance obligations and assesses whether each promised good or service is distinct. The Company then recognizes as revenue the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation when or as the performance obligation is satisfied. The Company derives revenue through two primary sources: collaboration revenue and product sales. Collaboration revenue consists of the collaboration payments to the Company for collaboration arrangements outside of the United States for the development, manufacturing and commercialization, including royalties, of the Company's product candidates by the Company's partners and product sales consists of sales of NEXLETOL and NEXLIZET.
a.Collaboration Revenue
The Company has entered into agreements related to its activities to develop, manufacture, and commercialize its product candidates. The Company earns collaboration revenue in connection with a collaboration agreement to develop and/or commercialize product candidates where the Company deems the collaborator to be the customer. Revenue is recognized when
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(or as) the Company satisfies performance obligations under the terms of a contract. Depending on the terms of the arrangement, the Company may defer the recognition of all or a portion of the consideration received as the performance obligations are satisfied.
The collaboration agreements may require the Company to deliver various rights, services, and/or goods across the entire life cycle of a product or product candidate. In an agreement involving multiple goods or services promised to be transferred to a customer, the Company must assess, at the inception of the contract, whether each promise represents a separate performance obligation (i.e., is "distinct"), or whether such promises should be combined as a single performance obligation.
The terms of the agreement typically include consideration to be provided to the Company in the form of non-refundable up-front payments, development milestones, sales milestones, and royalties on sales of products within a respective territory. The Company recognizes regulatory and approval milestones consideration when it is probable that a future reversal is unlikely to occur. For sales based milestones and royalties based on sales of product in a territory, the Company applies the sales-based royalty exception in ASC 606-10-55-65 to all of these milestones and royalties.
At the inception of the contract, the transaction price reflects the amount of consideration the Company expects to be entitled to in exchange for transferring promised goods or services to its customer. In the arrangement where the Company satisfies performance obligation(s) during the regulatory phase over time, the Company recognizes collaboration revenue typically using an input method on the basis of regulatory costs incurred relative to the total expected cost which determines the extent of progress toward completion. The Company reviews the estimate of the transaction price and the total expected cost each period and makes revisions to such estimates as necessary. Under contracted supply agreements with collaborators, the Company, through its third party contract manufacturing partners, may manufacture and supply quantities of active pharmaceutical ingredient (“API”) or bulk tablets reasonably required by collaboration partners for the development or sale of licensed products in their respective territory. The Company recognizes revenue when the collaboration partner has obtained control of the API or bulk tablets. The Company records the costs related to the supply agreement in cost of goods sold on the condensed statements of operations and comprehensive (loss) income.
Under the Company's collaboration agreements, product sales and cost of sales may be recorded by the Company's collaborators as they are deemed to be the principal in the transaction. The Company receives royalties from the commercialization of such products, and records its share of the variable consideration, representing a percentage of net product sales, as collaboration revenue in the period in which such underlying sales occur and costs are incurred by the collaborator.
b.Product Sales, Net
On February 21, 2020, the Company announced that the FDA approved NEXLETOL as an adjunct to diet and maximally tolerated statin therapy for the treatment of adults with HeFH or established ASCVD who require additional lowering of LDL-C. On February 26, 2020, the Company announced that the FDA approved NEXLIZET as an adjunct to diet and maximally tolerated statin therapy for the treatment of adults with HeFH or established ASCVD who require additional lowering of LDL-C. On March 30, 2020, NEXLETOL was commercially available in the U.S. through prescription and on June 4, 2020, NEXLIZET was commercially available in the U.S. through prescription. Net product sales totaled $13.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and $6.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021.
The Company sells NEXLETOL and NEXLIZET to wholesalers in the U.S. and, in accordance with ASC 606, recognizes revenue at the point in time when the customer is deemed to have obtained control of the product. The customer is deemed to have obtained control of the product at the time of physical receipt of the product at the customers’ distribution facilities, or free on board (“FOB”) destination, the terms of which are designated in the contract.
Product sales are recorded at the net selling price, which includes estimates of variable consideration for which reserves are established for (a) rebates and chargebacks, (b) co-pay assistance programs, (c) distribution fees, (d) product returns, and (e) other discounts. Where appropriate, these estimates take into consideration a range of possible outcomes which are probability-weighted for relevant factors such as current contractual and statutory requirements, and forecasted customer buying and payment patterns. Overall, these reserves reflect the Company's best estimates of the amount of consideration to which it is entitled based on the terms of the applicable contract. The amount of variable consideration may be constrained and is included in the net sales price only to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of the cumulative revenue recognized will not occur in a future period. Given the early stage of the Company’s commercial operations it has provided constraint of its variable consideration due to its potential consumption trends. Actual amounts of consideration ultimately received may differ from the Company's estimates. If actual results in the future vary from estimates, the Company adjusts these estimates, which would affect net product revenue and earnings in the period such variances become known.
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Liabilities for co-pay assistance, expected product returns, rebates, and distributor fees are classified as “Other accrued liabilities” in the condensed balance sheets. Discounts, such as prompt pay discounts, and chargebacks are recorded as a reduction to trade accounts receivable in the condensed balance sheets.
Forms of Variable Consideration
Rebates and Chargebacks: The Company estimates reductions to product sales for Public Health Service Institutions, such as Medicaid, Medicare and Veterans' Administration ("VA") programs, as well as certain other qualifying federal and state government programs, and other group purchasing organizations. The Company estimates these reductions based upon the Company's contracts with government agencies and other organizations, statutorily defined discounts and estimated payor mix. These organizations purchase directly from the Company's wholesalers at a discount and the wholesalers charge the Company back the difference between the wholesaler price and the discounted price. The Company's liability for Medicaid rebates consists of estimates for claims that a state will make for a current quarter. The Company's reserve for this discounted pricing is based on expected sales to qualified healthcare providers and the chargebacks that customers have already claimed.
Co-pay assistance: Eligible patients who have commercial insurance may receive assistance from the Company to reduce the patient's out of pocket costs. The Company will buy down the difference between the amount of the eligible patient's co-pay when the drug is purchased at the pharmacy at a determined price. Liabilities for co-pay assistance are calculated by actual program participation from third-party administrators.
Distribution Fees: The Company has written contracts with its customers that include terms for distribution fees and costs for inventory management. The Company estimates and records distribution fees due to its customers based on gross sales.
Product Returns: The Company generally offers a right of return based on the product’s expiration date and certain spoilage and damaged instances. The Company estimates the amount of product sales that may be returned and records the estimate as a reduction of product sales in the period the related product sales is recognized. The Company’s estimates for expected returns are based primarily on an ongoing analysis of sales information and visibility into the inventory remaining in the distribution channel.
Discounts: The Company provides product discounts, such as prompt pay discounts, to its customers. The Company estimates cash discounts based on terms in negotiated contracts and the Company’s expectations regarding future payment patterns.
Inventories
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value and recognized on a first-in, first-out ("FIFO") method. The Company uses standard cost to determine the cost basis for inventory. Inventory is capitalized based on when future economic benefit is expected to be realized. The Company began capitalizing inventory upon receiving FDA approval for NEXLETOL and NEXLIZET on February 21, 2020 and February 26, 2020, respectively. Prior to the FDA approval of NEXLETOL and NEXLIZET, expenses associated with the manufacturing of the Company's products were recorded as research and development expense.
The Company analyzes its inventory levels on a periodic basis to determine if any inventory is at risk for expiration prior to sale or has a cost basis that is greater than its estimated future net realizable value. Any adjustments are recognized through cost of goods sold in the period in which they are incurred.
Recently Implemented Accounting Pronouncements
There have been no other material changes to the significant accounting policies previously disclosed in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021.
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3. Collaborations with Third Parties
DSE Agreement Terms
On January 2, 2019, the Company entered into a license and collaboration agreement with DSE, which was furthered amended on June 18, 2020. Pursuant to the amended agreement, the Company granted DSE exclusive commercialization rights to bempedoic acid and the bempedoic acid / ezetimibe combination tablet in the European Economic Area, Turkey, and Switzerland (“DSE Territory”). DSE will be responsible for commercialization in the DSE Territory. DSE's designated affiliate in Turkey will be solely responsible, at its sole cost and expense, for all regulatory matters relating to such products in Turkey, including obtaining regulatory approval for such products in Turkey. The Company remains responsible for clinical development, regulatory and manufacturing activities for the licensed products globally, including in the DSE Territory outside of Turkey.
Pursuant to the agreement, the Company received upfront cash of $150.0 million in 2019 and a $150.0 million cash milestone payment in 2020 following the completion of the NUSTENDI Marketing Authorisation Applications ("MAA"). The Company is responsible for supplying DSE with certain manufacturing supply of the API or bulk tablets. The Company is also eligible to receive a substantial additional regulatory milestone payment upon the grant of the marketing authorisation in the European Union for the CV risk reduction label, depending on the range of relative risk reduction in the CLEAR Outcomes study. In addition, the Company is eligible to receive additional sales milestone payments related to total net sales achievements for DSE in the DSE Territory. Finally, the Company will receive tiered fifteen percent (15%) to twenty-five percent (25%) royalties on net DSE Territory sales.
The agreement calls for both parties to participate in a Joint Collaboration Committee (the “DSE JCC”). The DSE JCC is comprised of executive management from each company and the Company will lead in all aspects related to development and DSE will lead in all aspects related to commercialization in the DSE Territory.
Collaboration Revenue
In the three months ended March 31, 2022, the Company recognized collaboration revenue of approximately $5.3 million related to royalty revenue from DSE related to sales of NILEMDO and NUSTENDI as well as the sales of bulk tablets to DSE pursuant to the supply agreement that was executed with DSE. In the three months ended March 31, 2021, the Company recognized collaboration revenue of $1.6 million related to the sales of bulk tablets of NILEMDO and NUSTENDI to DSE.
All remaining future potential milestone amounts were not included in the transaction price, as they were all determined to be fully constrained following the concepts of ASC 606 due to the fact that such amounts hinge on development activities, regulatory approvals and sales-based milestones. Additionally, the Company expects that any consideration related to sales-based milestones will be recognized when the subsequent sales occur.
Otsuka Agreement Terms
On April 17, 2020, the Company entered into a license and collaboration agreement (the "Otsuka Agreement") with Otsuka. Pursuant to the Otsuka Agreement, the Company granted Otsuka exclusive development and commercialization rights to NEXLETOL and NEXLIZET in Japan. Otsuka will be responsible for all development, regulatory, and commercialization activities in Japan. In addition, Otsuka will fund all clinical development costs associated with the program in Japan.
Pursuant to the agreement, the consideration consists of a $60.0 million upfront cash payment and the Company will be eligible to receive additional payments of up to $450.0 million if certain regulatory and commercial milestones are achieved by Otsuka. The potential future milestone payments include up to $20.0 million upon first JNDA submissions in the Otsuka Territory, up to $70.0 million upon the first NHI Price Listing for NEXLETOL in the Otsuka Territory, and up to $50.0 million upon the achievement of the primary major adverse cardiovascular events (“MACE”) in the CLEAR Outcomes study and the CV risk reduction rate on the U.S. label, depending on the range of relative risk reduction in the CLEAR Outcomes study. In addition, the Company is eligible to receive additional sales milestone payments up to $310.0 million related to total net sales achievements for Otsuka in Japan. Finally, the Company will receive tiered fifteen percent (15%) to thirty percent (30%) royalties on net sales in Japan.
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Collaboration Revenue
The Company considered the guidance under ASC 606 and concluded that the agreement was in the scope of ASC 606. The Company did not have any collaboration revenue from the Otsuka Agreement during the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021.
All future potential milestone amounts were not included in the transaction price, as they were all determined to be fully constrained following the concepts of ASC 606 due to the fact that such amounts hinge on development activities, regulatory approvals and sales-based milestones. Additionally, the Company expects that any consideration related to royalties and sales-based milestones will be recognized when the subsequent sales occur.
The Company has not yet recognized any revenue for milestone payments as the related regulatory and commercial milestones have not yet been achieved.
DS Agreement Terms
In April 2021, the Company entered into a license and collaboration agreement with Daiichi Sankyo Co. Ltd (the "DS Agreement"). Pursuant to the DS Agreement, the Company granted DS exclusive rights to develop and commercialize bempedoic acid and the bempedoic acid / ezetimibe combination tablet in South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Thailand, Vietnam, Brazil, Macao, Cambodia and Myanmar (collectively the "DS Territory"). The agreement allows for potential expansion across geographies including Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, UAE, Qatar, Bahrain, Yemen, Colombia and other Latin American countries. Except for certain development activities in South Korea and Taiwan, DS will be responsible for development and commercialization in these territories. In addition, DS will fund all development costs associated with the program in the DS Territory. Pursuant to the agreement, the consideration consists of a $30.0 million upfront cash payment that is non-refundable, non-reimbursable and non-creditable. The Company also will be eligible to receive additional one-time payments of up to $175.0 million if certain commercial milestones are achieved by DS. Also, the Company will receive tiered royalties of five percent (5%) to twenty percent (20%) of net sales in the DS Territory.

Collaboration Revenue
The Company considered the guidance under ASC 606 and concluded that the agreement was in the scope of ASC 606. The Company concluded that the upfront payment of $30.0 million should be included in the transaction price and related to the following performance obligations under the agreement: 1) the license to the Company’s intellectual property and 2) the obligation to provide ongoing development activities. The Company used the adjusted market assessment approach in determining the standalone selling price of the Company’s intellectual property and the expected cost plus margin approach in determining the standalone selling price of the Company’s obligation to provide ongoing development activities. Accordingly, during the year ended December 31, 2021, the Company recognized $28.5 million of collaboration revenue related to the $30.0 million upfront payment. The $28.5 million relates to the performance obligations for the license to the Company’s intellectual property and a portion of ongoing regulatory and development activities conducted during the year ended December 31, 2021, in the amounts of $28.0 million and $0.5 million, respectively. For the three months ended March 31, 2022, the Company recognized $0.2 million of collaboration revenue related to the ongoing regulatory and development activities. The remaining $1.3 million of the upfront payment was deferred as of March 31, 2022 due to an on-going performance obligation related to the developmental activities in South Korea and Taiwan. This deferred revenue will be recognized ratably over the period leading up to the completion of these developmental activities.
All future potential milestone amounts were not included in the transaction price, as they were all determined to be fully constrained following the concepts of ASC 606 due to the fact that such amounts hinge on development activities, regulatory approvals and sales-based milestones. Additionally, the Company expects that any consideration related to royalties and sales-based milestones will be recognized when the subsequent sales occur.
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4. Inventories, net
Inventories, net consist of the following (in thousands):
March 31, 2022December 31, 2021
Raw materials$33,846 $31,850 
Work in process440 663 
Finished goods1,368 1,881 
$35,654 $34,394 
5. Commitments and Contingencies
On January 12, 2016, a purported stockholder of the Company filed a putative class action lawsuit in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan, against the Company and Tim Mayleben, captioned Kevin L. Dougherty v. Esperion Therapeutics, Inc., et al. (No. 16-cv-10089). The lawsuit alleges that the Company and Mr. Mayleben violated Sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and SEC Rule 10b-5 by allegedly failing to disclose in an August 17, 2015, public statement that the FDA would require a cardiovascular outcomes trial before approving the Company’s lead product candidate. The lawsuit seeks, among other things, compensatory damages in connection with an allegedly inflated stock price between August 18, 2015, and September 28, 2015, as well as attorneys’ fees and costs. On March 12, 2021, the parties agreed to a settlement in principle of the securities class action, and on April 26, 2021, the parties entered into a stipulation of settlement to resolve all legal claims, in which defendants expressly deny that they have committed any act or omission giving rise to any liability under Section 10(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Under the terms of the stipulation of settlement, which the court approved on August 24, 2021, the Company and certain of the Company's insurance carriers caused a payment of $18.25 million to be made to the plaintiff class. As a result of this settlement agreement, the Company recorded a loss on settlement of $13.25 million during the three months ended March 31, 2021 in selling, general, and administrative expenses on the statements of operations and comprehensive loss, which represents the litigation settlement of $18.25 million offset by $5.0 million in insurance claim proceeds from our insurance carriers.

There have been no material changes to the Company’s contractual obligations and commitments and contingencies outside the ordinary course of business from those previously disclosed in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021.
6. Investments
The following table summarizes the Company’s cash equivalents, restricted cash, and short-term investments (in thousands):
March 31, 2022
Amortized
Cost
Gross Unrealized GainsGross Unrealized LossesEstimated
Fair
Value
Cash equivalents and restricted cash:
Money market funds$140,752 $ $ $140,752 
Certificates of deposit400   400 
Short-term investments:
U.S. treasury notes68,401  (263)68,138 
Total$209,553 $ $(263)$209,290 
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December 31, 2021
Amortized
Cost
Gross Unrealized GainsGross Unrealized LossesEstimated
Fair
Value
Cash equivalents:
Money market funds$188,734 $ $ $188,734 
Certificates of deposit400   400 
Short-term investments:
U.S. treasury notes50,472  (31)50,441 
Total$239,606 $ $(31)$239,575 
During the three months ended March 31, 2022 and March 31, 2021, other income, net in the statements of operations includes interest income on investments of $0.3 million and less than $0.1 million, respectively. During the three months ended March 31, 2022, other income, net in the statements of operations includes amortization of premiums and discounts on investments of $0.2 million. There was no amortization of premiums and discounts on investments for the three months ended March 31, 2021.
There were no unrealized gains or losses on investments reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) to other income in the statements of operations during the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021.
In the three months ended March 31, 2022, there were no allowances for credit losses and all unrealized gains (losses) for available-for-sale securities were recognized in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). As of March 31, 2022, the Company had $0.2 million of accrued interest receivables.
7. Fair Value Measurements
The Company follows accounting guidance that emphasizes that fair value is a market-based measurement, not an entity-specific measurement. Fair value is defined as “the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.” Fair value measurements are defined on a three level hierarchy:
Level 1 inputs:    Quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in active markets;
Level 2 inputs:Observable inputs other than Level 1 prices, such as quoted market prices for similar assets or liabilities or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by market data; and
Level 3 inputs:Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and require the reporting entity to develop assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability.
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The following table presents the Company’s financial assets that have been measured at fair value on a recurring basis (in thousands):
DescriptionTotalLevel 1Level 2Level 3
March 31, 2022
Cash and cash equivalents:
Money market funds$140,752 $140,752 $ $ 
Certificates of deposit400 400   
Short-term investments:
U.S. treasury notes68,138 68,138   
Total assets at fair value$209,290 $209,290 $ $ 
December 31, 2021
Cash and cash equivalents:
Money market funds$188,734 $188,734 $ $ 
Certificates of deposit400 400   
Short-term investments:
U.S. treasury notes50,441 50,441   
Total assets at fair value$239,575 $239,575 $ $ 
There were no transfers between Levels 1, 2 or 3 during the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021.
8. Liability Related to the Revenue Interest Purchase Agreement
On June 26, 2019, the Company entered into a RIPA with Oberland, as agent for purchasers party thereto (the “Purchasers”), and the Purchasers named therein, to obtain financing in respect to the commercialization and further development of bempedoic acid and the bempedoic acid / ezetimibe combination tablet and other working capital needs. Pursuant to the RIPA, the Company received $125.0 million at closing, less certain issuance costs. The Company was entitled to receive up to approximately $75.0 million in subsequent installments subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the RIPA: (i) $25.0 million upon certain regulatory approval of its product candidates and (ii) $50.0 million, at the Company’s option, upon reaching $100.0 million trailing worldwide six-month net sales any time prior to December 31, 2021 (the “Third Payment”). In March 2020, the Company received $25.0 million from Oberland upon receiving regulatory approval of NEXLETOL.
As consideration for such payments, the Purchasers will have a right to receive certain revenue interests (the “Revenue Interests”) from the Company based upon net sales of the Company’s certain products, once approved, which will be tiered payments initially ranging from 2.5% to 7.5% of the Company’s net sales in the covered territory (the “Covered Territory”); provided that (a) if annual net sales equal or exceed $350.0 million by December 31, 2021 (the “Sales Threshold”), the initially tiered revenue interest rate will be decreased to a single rate of 2.5% of the Company’s net sales in the Covered Territory, beginning on January 1, 2022, and (b) if annual net sales equal or exceed the Sales Threshold and if the Purchasers receive 100% of their invested capital by December 31, 2024, the revenue interest rate will be decreased to a single rate of 0.4% of the Company’s net sales in the Covered Territory beginning on January 1, 2025. If the Third Payment is drawn down by the Company, the applicable royalty rates will increase by one-third. The Covered Territory is the United States, but is subject to expand to include the world-wide net sales if the Company’s annual U.S. net sales are less than $350.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. The U.S. net sales milestone thresholds are not to be taken as financial guidance. The Purchasers’ rights to receive the Revenue Interests shall terminate on the date on which the Purchasers have received Revenue Interests payments of 195% of the then aggregate purchase price (the “Cumulative Purchaser Payments”) paid to the Company, unless the RIPA is terminated earlier.

Under the RIPA, the Company has an option (the “Call Option”) to terminate the RIPA and repurchase future Revenue Interests at any time upon advance written notice. Additionally, the Purchasers have an option (the “Put Option”) to terminate the RIPA and to require the Company to repurchase future Revenue Interests upon enumerated events such as a bankruptcy event, an uncured material breach, a material adverse effect or a change of control. If the Put Option is exercised prior to the first anniversary of the closing date by the Purchasers (except pursuant to a change of control), the required repurchase price will be 120% of the Cumulative Purchaser Payments (minus all payments Company has made to the Purchasers in connection with the Revenue Interests). In all other cases, if the Put Option or the Call Option are exercised, the required repurchase price
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will be 175% of the Cumulative Purchaser Payments (minus all payments Company has made to the Purchasers in connection with the Revenue Interests), if such option is exercised prior to the third anniversary of the closing date, and 195% of the Cumulative Purchaser Payments (minus all payments Company has made to the Purchasers in connection with the Revenue Interests), if such option is exercised thereafter.
In addition, the RIPA contains various representations and warranties, information rights, non-financial covenants, indemnification obligations and other provisions that are customary for a transaction of this nature.

RIPA Amendments

On April 26, 2021, the Company entered into Amendment No. 2 (the “RIPA Amendment”) to the RIPA with Oberland, as agent for the purchaser parties thereto. Pursuant to the RIPA Amendment, Oberland waived the original trailing six-month world-wide net sales condition to the third installment payment under the RIPA and released the final $50 million payment payable to the Company under the terms of the RIPA. The Company and Oberland also agreed to amend additional terms of the RIPA such that the purchasers will have a right to receive certain revenue interests (the “Revenue Interests”) from the Company based on net sales of the Company’s certain products, once approved, which will be tiered payments ranging from 3.33% to 10% (the “Third Payment Applicable Percentage”) of the Company’s net sales in the covered territory (the “Covered Territory”); provided that (a) prior to December 31, 2024, with respect to each country defined in the Daiichi Territory, if the percentage of net sales that Company receives from Daiichi (the “Receivables Percentage”) is less than the Third Payment Applicable Percentage, then the Revenue Interest for such country payable to the purchasers will be equal to the Receivables Percentages, (b) if annual net sales equal or exceed $350 million and if the Purchasers receive 100% of their invested capital (
"Cumulative Purchaser Payments") by December 31, 2024, the revenue interest rate will be decreased to a single rate of 3.33% of the Company’s net sales in the Covered Territory for all subsequent calendar quarters and (c) if the Purchasers receive Revenue Interest payments less than 100% of Cumulative Purchaser Payments by December 31, 2024, the Third Payment Applicable Percentage will be increased to a single rate of the Company’s net sales that would have provided 100% of Cumulative Purchaser Payments had such rate applied from the initial funding by the Purchasers. The Covered Territory was originally the United States, but has been expanded to worldwide for all calendar years beginning on or after January 1, 2022.

Under the RIPA Amendment, the Company has an option (the “Call Option”) to terminate the RIPA and repurchase future Revenue Interests at any time upon advance written notice. Additionally, the Purchasers have an option (the “Put Option”) to terminate the RIPA and to require the Company to repurchase future Revenue Interests upon enumerated events such as a bankruptcy event, an uncured material breach, a material adverse effect or a change of control. If the Put Option or the Call Option are exercised, the required repurchase price will be 200% of the Cumulative Purchaser Payments (minus all payments Company has made to the Purchasers in connection with the Revenue Interests), if such option is exercised prior to the third anniversary of the closing date, and 225% of the Cumulative Purchaser Payments (minus all payments Company has made to the Purchasers in connection with the Revenue Interests), if such option is exercised thereafter.

On May 16, 2021, the Company entered into an Amendment to the Security Agreement and Waiver ("Amendment and Waiver") with the same parties to the Security Agreement, by and among the Company, Eiger Partners II LP (the "Purchaser") and Eiger III SA LLC (the "Purchaser Agent"), dated as of June 26, 2019 (the "Security Agreement"). Pursuant to the Amendment and Waiver, if (i) the net revenue from sales of NEXLETOL and NEXLIZET and certain other products in the United States (as reported in the Company’s financial statements as “product sales, net” in accordance with GAAP and excluding, for the avoidance of doubt, upfront or milestone payments and other collaboration revenue) (the “Specified Net Revenue”) for the calendar quarter ended September 30, 2021 does not exceed $15.0 million, or (ii) the Specified Net Revenue for any calendar quarter ending after September 30, 2021 does not exceed $15.0 million, then the Company shall deposit $50.0 million in a deposit account that is subject to a block account control agreement in favor of the Purchase Agent, no later than the earlier of (x) the date the Specified Net Revenue for such calendar quarter has been determined and (y) 45 days after the last day of such calendar quarter. Since the Specified Net Revenue for the calendar quarter ended September 30, 2021 did not exceed $15.0 million, the Company deposited $50.0 million in a deposit account that is subject to a block account control agreement, which is classified as restricted cash on the condensed balance sheets. The Purchaser Agent shall have sole dominion and control over all funds deposited in the deposited account and such funds may be withdrawn therefrom only with the consent of the Purchaser Agent. Upon the occurrence and during the continuance of a Put Option Event, the Purchaser Agent shall have the right to apply amounts held in the deposit account in payment of certain secured obligations in the manner provided for in the Security Agreement. The Amendment and Wavier does not substitute, replace or release the Pledgors from any other obligations under the RIPA or Security Agreement.
In connection with the arrangement, as of March 31, 2022, the Company has recorded a liability, referred to as the “Revenue interest liability” in the condensed balance sheets, of $266.8 million, net of $0.4 million of capitalized issuance costs in connection with the RIPA, which will be amortized to interest expense over the estimated term of the RIPA. The Company imputes interest expense associated with this liability using the effective interest rate method. The effective interest rate is calculated based on the rate that would enable the debt to be repaid in full over the anticipated life of the arrangement. The interest rate on this liability may vary during the term of the agreement depending on a number of factors, including the level of
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forecasted net sales. The Company evaluates the interest rate quarterly based on its current net sales forecasts utilizing the prospective method.

A significant increase or decrease in net sales will materially impact the revenue interest liability, interest expense and the time period for repayment. The Company recorded approximately $11.0 million in interest expense related to this arrangement for the three months ended March 31, 2022, and $4.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021.
The repayment of the RIPA to Oberland does not have a fixed repayment schedule, rather it will be completely repaid and extinguished when the Company has repaid 200% of the aggregate purchase price if repaid prior to the third anniversary of the closing date, and 225% of the Cumulative Purchaser Payments thereafter, unless the RIPA is terminated earlier. Since there is not a fixed repayment schedule, the Company does not project its future repayments by year. Each period, the Company estimates the future expected sales of its products in the covered territory and determines the effective annual imputed interest rate, which updates and changes the timing of the Company’s payments. Under the terms of the agreement, every $100 million of net sales generated, less than or equal to $250 million in an annual aggregate year, would result in a repayment obligation of approximately $10.0 million or 10.0% at the stated repayment rate in the first year. Annual net sales for a calendar year exceeding $250 million would result in a repayment obligation of approximately $3.3 million or 3.3% for every $100 million of sales above the threshold. If the Company would have equaled or exceeded $350 million of sales in the U.S. in 2021, then the repayment amount would have dropped to $3.3 million for every $100 million of net sales starting in 2022. As U.S. net sales were less than $350 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, the Covered Territory was expanded to include worldwide sales beginning in 2022. The Company’s repayments of the RIPA are directly tied to the growth of its net sales, and as the Company’s net sales grow, the Company expects the related repayments of the RIPA to grow as well. The Company currently expects to repay $13.4 million in the next twelve months.
The effective annual imputed interest rate is 16.6% as of March 31, 2022. The Company incurred $0.6 million of issuance costs in connection with the RIPA, which will be amortized to interest expense over the estimated term of the RIPA. Payments made to Oberland as a result of the Company’s net sales will reduce the revenue interest liability.
The following table summarizes the revenue interest liability activity during the three months ended March 31, 2022:
(in thousands)
Total revenue interest liability at December 31, 2021$257,039 
Interest expense recognized11,015 
Revenue Interests payments(1,217)
Total revenue interest liability at March 31, 2022$266,837 

9. Convertible Notes
In November 2020, the Company issued $280.0 million aggregate principal amount of 4.0% senior subordinated convertible notes due November 2025. The net proceeds the Company received from the offering was approximately $271.1 million, after deducting the initial purchasers’ discounts and commissions and offering expenses payable by the Company (the "Convertible Notes"). The Company used approximately $46.0 million of the net proceeds from the offering of the notes to pay the cost of the Capped Call (as defined below) and $55.0 million of the net proceeds from the offering of the initial notes to finance the Prepaid Forward (as defined below). The Convertible Notes are the Company's senior unsecured obligations and mature on November 15, 2025 (the “Maturity Date”), unless earlier repurchased or converted into shares of common stock under certain circumstances described below. The Convertible Notes are convertible into shares of the Company’s common stock, can be repurchased for cash, or a combination thereof, at the Company’s election, at an initial conversion rate of 30.2151 shares of common stock per $1,000 principal amount of the Convertible Notes, which is equivalent to an initial conversion price of approximately $33.096 per share of common stock, subject to adjustment. The Company will pay interest on the Convertible Notes semi-annually in arrears on May 15 and November 15 of each year.
The Convertible Notes are general unsecured obligations of the Company that are subordinated in right of payment to indebtedness, obligations and other liabilities under the Company’s RIPA, the revenue interests issued pursuant to such agreement, and any refinancing of the foregoing.
Holders may convert their Convertible Notes at their option at any time prior to the close of business on the business day immediately preceding August 15, 2025 in the following circumstances: (1) during any calendar quarter commencing after the calendar quarter ended on March 31, 2021 (and only during such calendar quarter), if the last reported sale price per share of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share (“common stock”), is greater than or equal to 130% of the conversion
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price for each of at least 20 trading days, whether or not consecutive, during the 30 consecutive trading days ending on, and including, the last trading day of the immediately preceding calendar quarter; (2) during the five business days after any five consecutive trading day period (such five consecutive trading day period, the “measurement period”) in which the trading price per $1,000 principal amount of notes for each trading day of the measurement period was less than 98% of the product of the last reported sale price per share of the Company’s common stock and the conversion rate for the notes on each such trading day; (3) if the Company calls such notes for redemption, any such notes that have been called for redemption may be converted at any time prior to the close of business on the second scheduled trading day immediately preceding the redemption date, but only with respect to the notes called for redemption; and (4) upon the occurrence of specified corporate events, as provided in the Indenture. On or after August 15, 2025, to the close of business on the second scheduled trading day immediately before the maturity date, holders may convert all or any portion of their notes at the applicable conversion rate at any time at the option of the holder regardless of the foregoing conditions.
In addition, following certain corporate events or following issuance of a notice of redemption, the Company will, in certain circumstances, increase the conversion rate for a holder who elects to convert its notes in connection with such a corporate event or to convert its notes called (or deemed called) for redemption during the related redemption period, as the case may be.
The Convertible Notes will be redeemable, in whole or in part, at the Company’s option at any time, and from time to time, on or after November 20, 2023 and before the 41st scheduled trading day immediately before the maturity date, at a cash redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the notes to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, but only if the last reported sale price per share of the Company’s common stock has been at least 130% of the conversion price then in effect for at least 20 trading days (whether or not consecutive), including the trading day immediately preceding the date the Company sends the related redemption notice, during any 30 consecutive trading day period ending on, and including, the trading day immediately preceding the date on which the Company sends such redemption notice. No sinking fund is provided for the notes. If the Company redeems less than all the outstanding notes, at least $125.0 million aggregate principal amount of notes must be outstanding and not subject to redemption as of the relevant redemption notice date.
If the Company undergoes a “fundamental change” (as defined in the Indenture), holders may require the Company to repurchase their notes for cash all or any portion of their notes at a fundamental change repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest, to, but excluding, the fundamental change repurchase date. The Indenture includes customary terms and covenants, including certain events of default.
The Company incurred approximately $8.9 million of issuance costs related to the issuance of the Convertible Notes, of which, prior to the adoption of Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2020-06 on January 1, 2021, $5.8 million and $3.1 million were allocated and recorded to long-term debt and additional paid-in capital, respectively. The $5.8 million of issuance costs recorded as long-term debt on the condensed balance sheet was to be amortized over the five-year contractual term of the Convertible Notes using the effective interest method.
Prior to the adoption of ASU 2020-06 on January 1, 2021, the $271.1 million of proceeds received from the issuance of the Convertible Notes were allocated between long-term debt (the “liability component”) of $177.6 million and additional paid-in capital (the “equity component”) of $93.5 million. The fair value of the liability component was measured using rates determined for similar debt instruments without a conversion feature. The carrying amount of the equity component, representing the conversion option, was determined by deducting the fair value of the liability component from the aggregate face value of the Convertible Notes and was included in additional paid-in capital in the condensed balance sheet and was not remeasured as long as it did not to meet the conditions for equity classification. The liability component was to be accreted up to the face value of the Convertible Notes of $280.0 million, which resulted in additional non-cash interest expense being recognized through the Maturity Date.
With the adoption of ASU 2020-06 as of January 1, 2021, the Company reports the convertible debt liability at the aggregate principal amount less unamortized issuance costs. This resulted in the reclassification of the $93.5 million of the Company’s convertible notes recognized at December 31, 2020 from additional paid in capital to the convertible debt liability. The portion of interest expense previously recognized for the accretion of the convertible debt liability and the true-up of the amortization of the issuance costs of $1.5 million was recorded as an adjustment to accumulated deficit.
On October 22, 2021, the Company entered into a privately negotiated exchange agreement (the “Exchange Agreement”) with two co-managed holders (the “Holders”) of its Convertible Notes. Under the terms of the Exchange Agreement the Holders agreed to exchange (the “Exchange”) with the Company $15.0 million aggregate principal amount of the Convertible Notes held in the aggregate by them (and accrued interest thereon) for shares of the Company’s common stock. Pursuant to the Exchange Agreement, the number of shares of common stock to be issued by the Company to the Holders upon consummation
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of the Exchange was determined based upon the volume-weighted-average-price per share of common stock, subject to a floor of $5.62 per share, during the five trading-day averaging period, commencing on the trading day immediately following the date of the Exchange Agreement. The Exchange closed on November 3, 2021, with 1,094,848 shares of the Company's common stock being exchanged.
As of March 31, 2022, the principal amount of convertible notes was $265.0 million, and the unamortized debt discount and issuance costs were $6.3 million, for a net carrying amount of $258.7 million.

The Company recorded $3.0 million and $3.2 million of interest expense during the three months ended March 31, 2022, and March 31, 2021, respectively, relating to the cash interest on the convertible notes due semi-annually and amortization of the debt issuance costs.

As of March 31, 2022, no Convertible Notes were convertible pursuant to their terms. The estimated fair value of the Convertible Notes was $137.1 million as of March 31, 2022 and $140.3 million as of December 31, 2021. The estimated fair value of the Convertible Notes was determined through consideration of quoted market prices. As of March 31, 2022, the if-converted value of the Convertible Notes did not exceed the principal value of those notes.

Capped Call Transactions
In connection with the offering of the Convertible Notes, the Company entered into privately-negotiated capped call transactions with one of the initial purchasers of the convertible notes or its affiliate and certain other financial institutions. The Company used approximately $46.0 million of the net proceeds from the offering of the Convertible Notes to pay the cost of the capped call transactions. The capped call transactions are expected generally to reduce potential dilution to the Company’s common stock upon any conversion of the Convertible Notes and/or offset any cash payments the Company is required to make in excess of the principal amount of converted notes, as the case may be, in the event that the market value per share of the Company’s common stock, as measured under the terms of the capped call transactions at the time of exercise, is greater than the strike price of the capped call transactions (which initially corresponds to the initial conversion price of the Convertible Notes, and is subject to certain adjustments), with such reduction and/or offset subject to a cap initially equal to approximately $55.16 (which represents a premium of approximately 100% over the last reported sale price of the Company’s common stock on November 11, 2020), subject to certain adjustments. The capped call transactions are separate transactions, entered into by the Company and are not part of the terms of the Convertible Notes.
Given that the transactions meet certain accounting criteria, the convertible note capped call transactions are recorded in stockholders’ equity, and they are not accounted for as derivatives and are not remeasured each reporting period. As of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the Company had not purchased any shares under the convertible note capped call transactions.
Prepaid Forward
In connection with the offering of the Convertible Notes, the Company entered into a prepaid forward stock repurchase transaction (“Prepaid Forward”) with a financial institution (“Forward Counterparty”). Pursuant to the Prepaid Forward, the Company used approximately $55.0 million of the net proceeds from the offering of the Convertible Notes to fund the Prepaid Forward. The aggregate number of shares of the Company’s common stock underlying the Prepaid Forward was approximately 1,994,198. The expiration date for the Prepaid Forward is November 15, 2025, although it may be settled earlier in whole or in part. Upon settlement of the Prepaid Forward, at expiration or upon any early settlement, the Forward Counterparty will deliver to the Company the number of shares of common stock underlying the Prepaid Forward or the portion thereof being settled early. The shares purchased under the Prepaid Forward are treated as treasury stock and not outstanding for purposes of the calculation of basic and diluted earnings per share, but will remain outstanding for corporate law purposes, including for purposes of any future stockholders’ votes, until the Forward Counterparty delivers the shares underlying the Prepaid Forward to the Company. As of March 31, 2022, 71,174 shares had been delivered to the Company. The Company’s Prepaid Forward hedge transaction exposes the Company to credit risk to the extent that its counterparty may be unable to meet the terms of the transaction. The Company mitigates this risk by limiting its counterparty to a major financial institution.
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10. Other Accrued Liabilities
Other accrued liabilities consist of the following (in thousands):
March 31,
2022
December 31,
2021
Accrued compensation$6,330 $8,809 
Accrued variable consideration16,574 16,192 
Accrued professional fees3,278 3,917 
Accrued interest on convertible notes3,975 1,325 
Accrued other43 167 
Total other accrued liabilities$30,200 $30,410 
11. Stock Compensation
Employee Stock Purchase Plan
In April 2020, the board of directors approved the Esperion Therapeutics, Inc. 2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the "ESPP") which was approved by the Company's shareholders on May 28, 2020. The ESPP allows eligible employees to authorize payroll deductions of up to 10% of their base salary or wages up to $25,000 annually to be applied toward the purchase of shares of the Company's common stock on the last trading day of the offering period. Participating employees will purchase shares of the Company's common stock at a discount of up to 15% on the lesser of the closing price of the Company's common stock on the NASDAQ Global Select Market (i) on the first trading day of the offering period or (ii) the last day of any offering period. Offering periods under the ESPP will generally be in six months increments, commencing on September 1 and March 1 of each calendar year with the administrator having the right to establish different offering periods. In the three months ended March 31, 2022 and March 31, 2021, the Company recognized approximately $0.1 million and $0.3 million of stock compensation expense related to the ESPP, respectively. As of March 31, 2022, there have been 256,999 shares issued and 568,001 shares reserved for future issuance under the ESPP.
Stock Options
The following table summarizes the activity relating to the Company’s options to purchase common stock for the three months ended March 31, 2022:
Number of OptionsWeighted-Average Exercise Price Per ShareWeighted-Average Remaining Contractual Term (Years)Aggregate Intrinsic Value
(in thousands)
Outstanding at December 31, 20213,214,537 $38.38 4.18$ 
Granted1,042,450 $4.64 
Forfeited or expired(155,728)$47.81 
Exercised $ 
Outstanding at March 31, 20224,101,259 $29.44 5.62$99 
Vested and expected to vest at March 31, 20224,101,259 $29.44 5.62$99 
Exercisable at March 31, 20222,491,684 $39.84 3.09$ 
Stock-based compensation related to stock options was $1.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022, including $0.1 million that were capitalized into inventory, and $3.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021, including $0.3 million that were capitalized into inventory. As of March 31, 2022, there was $13.7 million of unrecognized stock-based compensation expense related to unvested options, which will be recognized over a weighted-average period of 2.8 years.
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Performance-Based Stock Options ("PBSOs")
In 2021, the Company granted PBSOs from the 2013 Plan that vest upon various performance-based milestones as set forth in the individual grant agreements, such as achievement of predetermined clinical or regulatory outcomes. The actual number of units (if any) received under these awards will depend on continued employment and actual performance over the performance period. Each quarter, the Company updates their assessment of the probability that the performance milestone will be achieved. The Company amortizes the fair value of the PBSOs based on the expected performance period to achieve the performance milestone. The Company expects the performance criteria to be met.
The following table summarizes the activity relating to the Company’s PBSOs for the three months ended March 31, 2022:
Number of OptionsWeighted-Average Exercise Price Per ShareWeighted-Average Remaining Contractual Term (Years)Aggregate Intrinsic Value
(in thousands)
Outstanding at December 31, 2021122,700 $8.94 9.83$ 
Granted $ $— 
Forfeited or expired $ $— 
Exercised $ $— 
Outstanding at March 31, 2022122,700 $8.94 9.59$ 
Vested and expected to vest at March 31, 2022122,700 8.949.59$ 
Exercisable at March 31, 2022 $ 0$ 

Stock-based compensation related to PBSOs was $0.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022. As of March 31, 2022, there was approximately $0.6 million of unrecognized stock-based compensation expense related to unvested PBSOs, which will be recognized over a weighted-average period of approximately 1.7 years.
Restricted Stock Units (or RSUs)
The following table summarizes the activity relating to the Company’s RSUs for the three months ended March 31, 2022:
Number of
RSUs
Weighted-Average
Fair Value Per
Share
Outstanding and unvested December 31, 2021698,704 $28.09 
Granted1,386,629 $4.51 
Forfeited(51,330)$20.36 
Vested(55,286)$36.94 
Outstanding and unvested March 31, 20221,978,717 $11.51 
Stock-based compensation related to RSUs was approximately $1.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022, including $0.1 million that was capitalized into inventory, and approximately $1.8 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021, including $0.1 million that was capitalized into inventory. As of March 31, 2022, there was $19.9 million of unrecognized stock-based compensation expense related to unvested RSUs, which will be recognized over a weighted-average period of 3.1 years.
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Performance-based Restricted Stock Units ("PBRSUs")
In 2021, the Company granted PBRSUs from the 2013 Plan that vest upon various performance-based milestones as set forth in the individual grant agreements, such as achievement of predetermined milestones based on the Company's U.S. net product sales or clinical or regulatory outcomes. The actual number of units (if any) received under these awards will depend on continued employment and actual performance over the performance period. Each quarter, the Company updates their assessment of the probability that the performance milestone will be achieved. The Company amortizes the fair value of the PBRSUs based on the expected performance period to achieve the performance milestone. The fair value of the PBRSUs is based on the quoted market price of the Company's common stock on the date of grant. The Company expects the performance criteria to be met.
The following table summarizes the activity relating to the Company's PBRSUs for the three months ended March 31, 2022:
Number of
PBRSUs
Weighted-average fair value per share
Outstanding December 31, 2021639,950 $9.90 
Granted $ 
Forfeited(37,200)$8.94 
Outstanding and unvested March 31, 2022602,750 $9.96 
Stock-based compensation related to the PBRSUs was approximately $0.8 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022, including $0.1 million that was capitalized into inventory. As of March 31, 2022, there was approximately $4.4 million of unrecognized stock-based compensation expense related to unvested PBRSUs, which will be recognized over a weighted-average period of approximately 2.1 years.
12. Income Taxes
There was no provision for income taxes for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, because the Company has incurred annual operating losses since inception. At March 31, 2022, the Company continues to conclude that it is not more likely than not that the Company will realize the benefit of its deferred tax assets due to its history of losses. Accordingly, a full valuation allowance has been applied against the net deferred tax assets.
13. Warrants

In connection with an underwriting agreement with H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC (the "Offering"), entered into on December 2, 2021, the Company issued warrants to purchase 36,964,286 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $9.00. The warrants will terminate on December 7, 2023. The warrants were recorded at fair value of $61.9 million to additional-paid-in-capital in accordance with ASC 815-10 based upon the allocation of the proceeds between the common shares issued with the Offering and the warrants. The Company estimated the fair value of the warrants using a Black-Scholes option-pricing model, which is based, in part, upon subjective assumptions including but not limited to stock price volatility, the expected life of the warrant, the risk-free interest rate and the fair value of the common stock underlying the warrant. The Company estimates the volatility based on its historical volatility that is in line with the expected remaining life of the warrants. The risk-free interest rate is based on the U.S. Treasury daily rate for a maturity similar to the expected remaining life of the warrants. The expected remaining life of the warrants is assumed to be equivalent to its remaining contractual term.

As of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the Company had warrants outstanding that were exercisable for a total of 36,964,286 shares of common stock at a weighted-average exercise price of $9.00 per share.


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14. Net Loss Per Common Share
Basic net loss per share is calculated by dividing net loss by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period, without consideration for common stock equivalents. Diluted net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted-average number of common stock equivalents outstanding for the period, including shares that potentially could be dilutive if they were exercised or vested during the period, determined using the treasury-stock method. For purposes of this calculation, warrants for common stock, stock options, PBSOs, unvested RSUs and PBRSUs, shares issuable under the ESPP and shares issuable upon conversion of the convertible notes are considered to be common stock equivalents and are only included in the calculation of diluted net loss per share when their effect is dilutive.
The shares outstanding at the end of the respective periods presented below were excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share due to their anti-dilutive effect:
Three Months Ended March 31,
20222021
Common shares under option4,101,259 4,030,575 
Common shares under PBSOs122,700  
Unvested RSUs1,978,717 639,581 
Unvested PBRSUs602,750  
Shares issuable related to the ESPP40,257 17,838 
Shares issuable upon conversion of convertible notes8,007,010 8,460,237 
Warrants36,964,286  
Total potential dilutive shares51,816,979 13,148,231 
15. Statements of Cash Flows and Restricted Cash

The following table provides a reconciliation of cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash presented on the balance sheets to the same amounts presented on the statements of cash flows on March 31, 2022 and 2021 and December 31, 2021 and 2020 (in thousands):

March 31, 2022March 31, 2021December 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Cash and cash equivalents150,364 $217,939 $208,892 $304,962 
Restricted cash50,000  50,000  
Total cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash shown on the condensed statements of cash flows$200,364 $217,939 $258,892 $304,962 


16. Subsequent Events

On April 15, 2022, the Company filed a new registration statement on Form S-3 to replace the Registration Statement, which registers the offering, issuance and sale of the remaining amount under the ATM Program. The Company may continue to use an ATM Program to address potential short-term or long-term funding requirements that may arise. Such program will continue to be subject to the volatility of the price of the Company's common stock and general market conditions.



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Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our condensed financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and our annual report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021 and other filings that we make with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Forward-Looking Statements
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act). These forward-looking statements are based on our management’s belief and assumptions and on information currently available to management. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in these forward-looking statements are reasonable, these statements relate to future events, including our clinical development and commercialization plans, or our future financial performance and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements, including in relation to the clinical development, commercialization plans, approval of expanded indications for bempedoic acid and the bempedoic acid / ezetimibe combination tablet and expectations regarding future transactions to further improve our balance sheet to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements, including in relation to the clinical development, commercialization plans, or approval of expanded indications for bempedoic acid and the bempedoic acid / ezetimibe combination tablet, the impact of COVID-19, our corporate workforce reduction and targeted program savings on our business, clinical activities and commercial development plans, expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements.

Forward-looking statements are often identified by the use of words such as, but not limited to, “may,” “will,” “should,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “potential,” “continue” or the negative of these terms or other similar terminology. These statements are only predictions. You should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements because they involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, which are, in some cases, beyond our control and that could materially affect results. Factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from current expectations include, among other things, those referred to or discussed in or incorporated by reference into the section titled “Risk Factors” included in Item 1A of Part II of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. If one or more of these risks or uncertainties occur, or if our underlying assumptions prove to be incorrect, actual events or results may vary significantly from those implied or projected by the forward-looking statements. No forward-looking statement is a guarantee of future performance.
The forward-looking statements in this report represent our views as of the date of this quarterly report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of such statements.
We use the terms “we,” “us,” “our,” or the "Company” in this report to refer to Esperion Therapeutics, Inc.
Overview
Corporate Overview
We are a pharmaceutical company singularly focused on developing and commercializing accessible, oral, once-daily, non-statin medicines for patients struggling with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or LDL-C. Through commercial execution and advancement of our CLEAR Outcomes trial as well as our pre-clinical pipeline, we continue to evolve into a differentiated, global cardiometabolic biotech. Our team of lipid experts are dedicated to lowering bad cholesterol through the discovery, development and commercialization of innovative medicines and their combinations with established medicines. Our first two products were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, European Medicines Agency, or EMA and Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Products, or Swissmedic, in 2020. Bempedoic acid and the bempedoic acid / ezetimibe combination tablet are oral, once-daily, non-statin, LDL-C lowering medicines for patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, or ASCVD, or heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, or HeFH.
We were incorporated in Delaware in January 2008 and commenced our operations in April 2008. Since our inception, we have focused substantially all of our efforts and financial resources on developing bempedoic acid and the bempedoic acid / ezetimibe combination tablet. In February 2020, the FDA approved NEXLETOL and NEXLIZET. NEXLETOL was commercially available in the U.S. on March 30, 2020 and NEXLIZET was commercially available in the U.S. on June 4, 2020. We have funded our operations to date primarily through proceeds from sales of preferred stock, convertible promissory notes
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and warrants, public offerings of common stock, the incurrence of indebtedness, through collaborations with third parties and revenue interest purchase agreements, and we have incurred losses in each year since our inception.
We have never been profitable and our net losses were $56.7 million and $90.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and March 31, 2021, respectively. Substantially all of our net losses resulted from costs incurred in connection with research and development programs and selling, general and administrative costs associated with our operations. We expect to incur significant expenses and operating losses for the foreseeable future in connection with our ongoing activities, including, among others:

commercializing NEXLETOL and NEXLIZET in the U.S; and
completing the clinical development activities for the CLEAR Outcomes CVOT.
Accordingly, we may need additional financing to support our continuing operations and further the development and commercialization of our products. We may seek to fund our operations and further development activities through collaborations with third parties, strategic alliances, licensing arrangements, permitted debt financings, permitted royalty-based financings, permitted public or private equity offerings or through other sources. Adequate additional financing may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. Our failure to raise capital as and when needed would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and our ability to pursue our business strategy or continue operations. We will need to generate significant revenues to achieve profitability, and we may never do so.
Product Overview
NEXLETOL is a first-in-class ATP Citrate Lyase, or ACL, inhibitor that lowers LDL-C by reducing cholesterol biosynthesis and up-regulating the LDL receptors. Completed Phase 3 studies conducted in more than 3,000 patients, with over 2,000 patients treated with NEXLETOL, demonstrated an average 18 percent placebo corrected LDL-C lowering when used in patients on moderate or high-intensity statins. NEXLETOL was approved by the FDA in February 2020 as an adjunct to diet and maximally tolerated statin therapy for the treatment of adults with HeFH or established ASCVD who require additional lowering of LDL-C.
NEXLIZET contains bempedoic acid and ezetimibe and lowers elevated LDL-C through complementary mechanisms of action by inhibiting cholesterol synthesis in the liver and absorption in the intestine. Phase 3 data demonstrated NEXLIZET lowered LDL-C by a mean of 38 percent compared to placebo when added on to maximally tolerated statins. NEXLIZET was approved by the FDA in February 2020 as an adjunct to diet and maximally tolerated statin therapy for the treatment of adults with HeFH or established ASCVD who require additional lowering of LDL-C.
NILEMDO is a first-in-class ACL inhibitor that lowers LDL-C by reducing cholesterol biosynthesis and up-regulating the LDL receptors. NILEMDO was approved by the EC in March 2020 for use in adults with primary hypercholesterolemia (heterozygous familial and non-familial) or mixed dyslipidemia, as an adjunct to diet in combination with a statin or statin with other lipid-lowering therapies in adult patients unable to reach LDL-C goals with the maximum tolerated dose of a statin, or alone or in combination with other lipid-lowering therapies as an adjunct to diet in adult patients who are statin-intolerant, or for whom a statin is contraindicated.
NUSTENDI contains bempedoic acid and ezetimibe and lowers elevated LDL-C through complementary mechanisms of action by inhibiting cholesterol synthesis in the liver and absorption in the intestine. NUSTENDI was approved by the EC in March 2020 for use in adults with primary hypercholesterolemia (heterozygous familial and non-familial) or mixed dyslipidemia, as an adjunct to diet in combination with a statin in adult patients unable to reach LDL-C goals with the maximum tolerated dose of a statin in addition to ezetimibe, alone in patients who are either statin-intolerant or for whom a statin is contraindicated, and are unable to reach LDL-C goals with ezetimibe alone, or as an adjunct to diet in adult patients already being treated with the combination of bempedoic acid and ezetimibe as separate tablets with or without statin.
During the three months ended March 31, 2022, we incurred $16.0 million in expenses related to our CLEAR Outcomes CVOT and other ongoing clinical studies.
During the three months ended March 31, 2021, we incurred $15.9 million in expenses related to our CLEAR Outcomes CVOT and other ongoing clinical studies.
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Ongoing Clinical Studies
Global Cardiovascular Outcomes Trial—CLEAR Outcomes
CLEAR Outcomes is a Phase 3, event driven, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study designed to evaluate whether treatment of bempedoic acid reduces the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with statin intolerance who have cardiovascular disease or are at high risk for cardiovascular disease. The primary endpoint of the study is the effect of bempedoic acid on major adverse cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, or coronary revascularization; also referred to as "four-component MACE"). CLEAR Outcomes is designed to provide 90 percent power to detect an approximately 15 percent relative risk reduction in the primary endpoint in the bempedoic acid treatment group as compared to the placebo group and is expected to complete with a minimum of 1,620 patients experiencing the primary endpoint.
The study over-enrolled with over 14,000 patients with hypercholesterolemia and high cardiovascular disease risk at over 1,200 sites in 32 countries. Eligible patients at high risk (LDL-C >100 mg/dL in primary prevention) for cardiovascular disease or with cardiovascular disease (LDL-C between 100 mg/dL to 190 mg/dL in secondary prevention) and who are only able to tolerate less than the lowest approved daily starting dose of a statin and considered statin adverse, were randomized to receive bempedoic acid 180 mg once-daily or placebo. The expected average baseline LDL-C level in all patients is between 135 mg/dL and 140 mg/dL.
CLEAR Outcomes will conclude once the predetermined number of MACE endpoints occur. We initiated CLEAR Outcomes in December 2016 and completed enrollment in August 2019. The expected average treatment duration will be 3.75 years with a minimum treatment duration of approximately 2.25 years. Based on estimated cardiovascular event rates, we expect to meet the target number of events in the second half of 2022 and report top-line results in the first quarter of 2023. The study is intended to support our submissions for a CV risk reduction indication in the U.S., Europe and other territories. In May 2022, we are approaching 95% of the primary 4-component MACE endpoints.
Organizational Updates
On March 15, 2022, we announced that Richard B. Bartram was stepping down from his positions as Chief Financial Officer, Principal Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer of the Company, effective as of April 8, 2022. Sheldon Koenig, President and Chief Executive Officer, is currently fulfilling the role of the Principal Financial and Accounting Officer.

On April 28, 2022, Mark E. McGovern, M.D. notified the Board of Directors (the “Board”) of the Company of his decision to resign from the Board, effective immediately. On April 28, 2022, the Board elected Stephen Rocamboli to fill the newly created vacancy on the Board resulting from Dr. McGovern’s resignation from the Board, effective April 28, 2022. Mr. Rocamboli will serve as a Class I director with a term expiring at the annual meeting of stockholders to be held in 2023, at which time he will stand for election by the Company’s stockholders, or until his earlier death, resignation or removal.

The COVID-19 Pandemic
The full extent to which the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, or the future outbreak of any other highly infectious or contagious diseases, may impact our business, including our CVOT and commercialization efforts will depend on continuously changing circumstances, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted at this time, such as the duration of such pandemic including future waves of infection, the emergence and prevalence of more contagious variants, such as the recent "Omicron" variant and the BA.2 subvariants of the virus, or the global availability and utilization of effective vaccines, the actions taken to contain the pandemic or mitigate its impact, and the direct and indirect economic effects of the pandemic and containment measures, among others. The ongoing fluidity of this situation precludes any prediction as to the full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic but it has had a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic may also have the effect of heightening the risks to which we are subject, including potential impacts on the progress and time to completion of our ongoing CVOT, the reliance on third parties in our supply chain for materials and manufacturing and delivery of our drugs and drug candidates, our ability to effectively promote and market our approved products, disruptions in health regulatory agencies' operations globally, the volatility of our common stock, our ability to access capital markets, and our ability to successfully commercialize and generate revenue from our approved drugs.

We are continuing to assess the long-term impact of COVID-19 on our business operations in an effort to mitigate interruption to our commercialization of our approved drugs and other business activities and to ensure the safety and well being of our employees, as well as the physicians and patients participating in our CVOT. Because COVID-19 infections have been reported throughout the U.S. and worldwide, and as new strains continue to be identified, certain national, state, and local
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governmental authorities have issued orders, proclamations, and/or directives aimed at minimizing the spread of COVID-19. Although some of these restrictions were eased or lifted, in response to local surges and new waves of infection, some countries, states, and local governments have reinstituted these restrictions, and additional, more restrictive orders, proclamations, and/or directives may be issued in the future. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we have implemented precautionary measures to protect the health and safety of our employees, partners, and patients, including encouraging all employees to work-from-home if able to perform their duties remotely, and requiring adherence to onsite occupancy limits and appropriate safety measures designed to comply with federal, state, and local guidelines.
Our ability to successfully launch, commercialize, and generate revenue from NEXLETOL, NEXLIZET, NILEMDO and NUSTENDI has been and may continue to be adversely affected by the economic impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Physicians’ offices and other medical institutions continue to have limited access for nonpatients, which includes our sales personnel. In addition, social distancing or testing requirements and precautionary measures due to COVID-19 have impacted the ability of our sales personnel to interact in-person with customers. As a result, in many circumstances we have needed to limit our interactions with physicians and payors and adapt our launch strategies and tactics to a virtual model, including developing and deploying various technology-enabled platforms for virtual engagement such as remote detailing, digital and non-personal marketing channels, and social media. These circumstances have affected and may continue to adversely affect the ability of our sales professionals to effectively market our approved drugs to physicians and the rates of uptakes for our approved drugs, which may have a negative impact on our sales and our market penetration. In addition, patient visits with physicians have decreased as a result of COVID-19, due to travel restrictions, social distancing requirements, prioritization of healthcare resources to address the pandemic, and/or fear of exposure to the virus, which we believe has adversely affected and could continue to have an adverse impact on new patient starts and overall patient treatment volume. Market disruption and unemployment caused by the COVID-19 pandemic may lead to delays in obtaining insurance coverage and reimbursement of newly approved products.
We have had to optimize our cost structure in response to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on the conventional healthcare model associated with normal health management practices, such as regular physician office visits, lab tests, and prescription fills. As a result of the impact COVID-19 has had on our business and demand, in October 2021, we announced our plan to align operational and expense structure to better enable future growth for NEXLETOL and NEXLIZET and prioritize our investment in the CLEAR Outcomes trial. This included reducing operational expense across the organization through a corporate workforce reduction of approximately 40% and through targeted program savings. We will focus our commercialization efforts on an optimized blend of focused outreach including a streamlined sales force, directed to targeted cardiologists and primary care physicians, and a suite of digital initiatives designed to increase awareness and utilization of our medicines in appropriate patients. We adjusted our 2021 operating expense guidance and planned 2022 operating expense budget accordingly, including our budgeted production plans. While it is not possible at this time to estimate the entirety of the impact that the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic will have on our business or operations, the continued spread or future waves of COVID-19, measures taken by governments, actions taken to protect employees, and the broad impact of the pandemic on all business activities may materially and adversely affect our preclinical activities, clinical development progress, data and timelines, commercialization efforts including any revenue from sales, supply chain continuity, and general business operations, and our business, prospects, financial condition, and results of operations could be materially harmed as a result.
To date, we have not experienced any interruption of our supply of drug products needed to support our ongoing clinical study and product sales. However, such interruptions may occur due to supply chain issues related to COVID-19, such as the demand for vaccines and potential for manufacturing facilities and materials to be commandeered under the Defense Production Act of 1950, or equivalent foreign legislation, which may make it more difficult to obtain materials or manufacturing capacity at our third-party manufacturers to the products needed for our clinical trials and commercial product, which could lead to delays in our ongoing trial and/or issues with our commercial supply. We remain focused on maintaining a strong balance sheet, liquidity and financial flexibility and continue to monitor developments as we deal with the disruptions and uncertainties from a business and financial perspective relating to COVID-19. We will continue to work diligently with our partners and stakeholders to continue supporting patient access to our approved medicines, advancing our products under regulatory review as well as in our clinical studies to the extent safe to do so for patients, caregivers and healthcare practitioners, and ensuring the continuity of our manufacturing and supply chain. For additional information related to the potential impact of COVID-19 on our business, please read Part I-Item 1A, “Risk Factors” of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021.
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Financial Operations Overview
Product sales, net
Product sales, net is related to our sales of NEXLETOL and NEXLIZET. NEXLETOL was commercially available in the U.S. on March 30, 2020 and NEXLIZET was commercially available in the U.S. on June 4, 2020.
Collaboration revenue
Collaboration revenue is related to our collaboration agreements with Daiichi Sankyo Europe GmbH, or DSE, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., or Otsuka, and Daiichi Sankyo Co. Ltd, or DS. Collaboration revenue in the three months ended March 31, 2022 and March 31, 2021 was primarily related to sales of bulk tablets under supply agreements and royalty revenue received from collaboration partners. Under contracted supply agreements with ex-U.S. collaborators, we may manufacture and supply quantities of active pharmaceutical ingredient, or API, or bulk tablets reasonably required by ex-U.S. collaboration partners for the development or sale of licensed products in their respective territory. We recognize revenue when the collaboration partner has obtained control of the API or bulk tablets. We also receive royalties from the commercialization of such products, and record our share of the variable consideration, representing a percentage of net product sales, as collaboration revenue in the period in which such underlying sales occur and costs are incurred by the collaborators.
Cost of goods sold
Cost of goods sold is related to our net product sales of NEXLETOL and NEXLIZET and the cost of goods sold from our supply agreements with collaboration partners. Prior to the FDA approval of NEXLETOL and NEXLIZET in February 2020, expenses associated with the manufacturing of our products were recorded as research and development expense.
Research and Development Expenses
Our research and development expenses consist primarily of costs incurred in connection with the development of bempedoic acid and the bempedoic acid / ezetimibe combination tablet, which include:
expenses incurred under agreements with consultants, contract research organizations, or CROs, and investigative sites that conduct our preclinical and clinical studies;
the cost of acquiring, developing and manufacturing clinical study materials and commercial product manufacturing supply prior to product approval, including the procurement of ezetimibe in our continued development of our bempedoic acid / ezetimibe combination tablet;
employee-related expenses, including salaries, benefits, stock-based compensation and travel expenses;
allocated expenses for rent and maintenance of facilities, insurance and other supplies; and
costs related to compliance with regulatory requirements.
We expense research and development costs as incurred. To date, substantially all of our research and development work has been related to bempedoic acid and the bempedoic acid / ezetimibe combination tablet. Costs for certain development activities, such as clinical studies, are recognized based on an evaluation of the progress to completion of specific tasks using data such as patient enrollment, clinical site activations or information provided to us by our vendors. Our direct research and development expenses consist principally of external costs, such as fees paid to investigators, consultants, central laboratories and CROs in connection with our clinical studies. We do not allocate acquiring and manufacturing clinical study materials, salaries, stock-based compensation, employee benefits or other indirect costs related to our research and development function to specific programs.
We will continue to incur research and development expenses in the foreseeable future as they relate to our ongoing CLEAR Outcomes CVOT and any other development programs or additional indications we choose to pursue. We cannot determine with certainty the duration and completion costs associated with the ongoing or future clinical studies of bempedoic acid and the bempedoic acid / ezetimibe combination tablet. The duration, costs and timing associated with the development of bempedoic acid and the bempedoic acid / ezetimibe combination tablet will depend on a variety of factors, including uncertainties associated with the results of our clinical studies and our ability to obtain regulatory approval outside the U.S. and Europe. For example, if a regulatory authority were to require us to conduct clinical studies beyond those that we currently
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anticipate that will be required for the completion of clinical development or post-commercialization clinical studies of bempedoic acid or the bempedoic acid / ezetimibe combination tablet, we could be required to expend significant additional financial resources and time on the completion of clinical development or post-commercialization clinical studies of bempedoic acid and the bempedoic acid / ezetimibe combination tablet.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
Selling, general and administrative expenses primarily consist of salaries and related costs for personnel, including stock-based compensation, associated with our sales, executive, accounting and finance, commercial, operational and other administrative functions. Other general and administrative expenses include selling expenses, facility-related costs, communication expenses and professional fees for legal, patent prosecution, protection and review, consulting and accounting services.
As a result of the corporate workforce reduction in October 2021 and other targeted program savings, we anticipate that our selling, general and administrative expenses will decrease in 2022 compared to 2021. We expect our selling, general and administrative expenses will increase after we report top-line results from the CLEAR Outcomes trial in the first quarter of 2023 in connection with potential additional global regulatory submissions for new product indications, expanded commercialization initiatives for NEXLETOL and NEXLIZET and increases in our associated headcount.

Interest Expense
Interest expense is related to our Revenue Interest Purchase Agreement, or RIPA, with Eiger III SA LLC, or Oberland, an affiliate of Oberland Capital and our convertible notes issued in November 2020.
Other Income, Net
Other income, net, primarily relates to the sale of lease vehicles associated with the reduction in force, interest income and the accretion or amortization of premiums and discounts earned on our cash, cash equivalents and investment securities.
Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Judgments and Estimates
Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based on our financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities and expenses and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in our financial statements. We evaluate our estimates and judgments on an ongoing basis. We base our estimates on historical experience, known trends and events, contractual milestones and other various factors that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Our actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
There have been no other material changes to the significant accounting policies previously disclosed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021.
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Results of Operations
Comparison of the Three Months Ended March 31, 2022 and 2021
Three Months Ended March 31,
20222021Change
(unaudited, in thousands)
Revenue:
Product sales, net$13,354 $6,350 $7,004 
Collaboration revenue5,482 1,628 3,854 
Operating Expenses:
Cost of goods sold7,125 1,784 5,341 
Research and development24,319 27,954 (3,635)
Selling, general and administrative30,381 61,064 (30,683)
Loss from operations(42,989)(82,824)39,835 
Interest expense(14,062)(8,125)(5,937)
Other income, net320 14 306 
Net loss$(56,731)$(90,935)$34,204 
Product sales, net
Product sales, net for the three months ended March 31, 2022 was $13.4 million compared to $6.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021, an increase of $7.0 million. The increase is primarily due to prescription growth of NEXLETOL and NEXLIZET during the first quarter of 2022 compared to the first quarter of 2021.
Collaboration revenue
Collaboration revenue recognized from our collaboration agreements for the three months ended March 31, 2022 was $5.5 million compared to $1.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021, an increase of $3.9 million. The increase is primarily due to increased product sales to collaboration partners under our supply agreements and increased royalty revenue from our collaboration agreement with DSE.
Cost of goods sold
Cost of goods sold for the three months ended March 31, 2022 was $7.1 million compared to $1.8 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021, an increase of $5.3 million. The increase is primarily related to increased product sales to our collaboration partners from our supply agreements and increased net product sales of NEXLETOL and NEXLIZET.
Research and development expenses
Research and development expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2022, were $24.3 million, compared to $28.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021, a decrease of approximately $3.7 million. The decrease in research and development expenses was primarily attributable to a reduction in alternative supply manufacturing and compensation costs.
Selling, general and administrative expenses
Selling, general and administrative expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2022, were $30.4 million, compared to $61.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021, a decrease of $30.7 million. The decrease in selling, general and administrative expenses was primarily attributable to decreases in compensation costs related to the reduction in force in the fourth quarter of 2021 and a $13.3 million one-time charge associated with a legal settlement in 2021.
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Interest expense
Interest expense for the three months ended March 31, 2022, was $14.1 million, compared to $8.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021, an increase of approximately $6.0 million. The increase in interest expense was primarily due to additional interest expense attributable to the third installment payment from our RIPA with Oberland.
Other income, net
Other income, net for the three months ended March 31, 2022, was $0.3 million, compared to less than $0.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021, an increase of $0.3 million. The increase in other income, net was primarily due to a gain on sale of our lease vehicles due to the reduction in force.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
While we began to generate