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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-Q
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended September 30, 2021
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to       
         
Commission file number: 001-35986
Esperion Therapeutics, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware    26-1870780
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
3891 Ranchero Drive, Suite 150
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
(Address of principal executive office) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:
(734) 887-3903
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class Trading Symbol(s) Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share ESPR 
NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes x  No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes x  No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerx    
Accelerated filer o
Non-accelerated filer oSmaller reporting company 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes   No x
As of November 1, 2021, there were 29,077,357 shares of the registrant’s Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share, outstanding.


Table of Contents
Esperion Therapeutics, Inc.
INDEX
Page
PART I — FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Financial Statements

2

Table of Contents


Esperion Therapeutics, Inc.
Condensed Balance Sheets
(in thousands, except share data)
September 30,
2021
December 31,
2020
(unaudited)
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$103,672 $304,962 
Accounts receivable21,710 12,388 
Prepaid clinical development costs986 844 
Inventories, net33,972 16,136 
Other prepaid and current assets10,328 11,566 
Total current assets170,668 345,896 
Restricted cash50,000  
Property and equipment, net817 1,276 
Right of use operating lease assets3,715 6,030 
Intangible assets56 56 
Total assets$225,256 $353,258 
Liabilities and stockholders’ equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$20,745 $51,975 
Accrued clinical development costs3,746 7,663 
Other accrued liabilities34,476 24,790 
Revenue interest liability14,048 5,392 
Deferred revenue from collaborations3,068 1,662 
Operating lease liabilities2,402 2,587 
Total current liabilities78,485 94,069 
Convertible notes, net of issuance costs272,508 179,367 
Revenue interest liability233,520 171,212 
Operating lease liabilities1,313 3,454 
Deferred revenue from collaborations845  
Other long-term liabilities1,290 1,290 
Total liabilities587,961 449,392 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 5)
Stockholders’ equity:
Preferred stock, $0.001 par value; 5,000,000 shares authorized and no shares issued or outstanding as of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020
  
Common stock, $0.001 par value; 120,000,000 shares authorized as of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020; 28,794,567 shares issued at September 30, 2021 and 27,910,366 shares issued at December 31, 2020
27 26 
Additional paid-in capital733,524 797,655 
Treasury stock, at cost; 1,994,198 shares at September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020
(54,998)(54,998)
Accumulated deficit(1,041,258)(838,817)
Total stockholders’ deficit(362,705)(96,134)
Total liabilities and stockholders’ deficit$225,256 $353,258 
See accompanying notes to the condensed financial statements.
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Esperion Therapeutics, Inc.
Condensed Statements of Operations and Comprehensive (Loss) Income
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
(unaudited)

Three Months Ended
September 30,
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
2021202020212020
Revenues:
Product sales, net$10,895 $3,331 $27,855 $4,798 
Collaboration revenue3,514 502 35,191 213,111 
Total Revenues14,409 3,833 63,046 217,909 
Operating expenses:
Cost of goods sold5,558 275 9,142 704 
Research and development25,331 35,283 78,359 104,972 
Selling, general and administrative39,265 48,826 146,647 138,060 
Total operating expenses70,154 84,384 234,148 243,736 
Loss from operations(55,745)(80,551)(171,102)(25,827)
Interest expense(13,654)(4,928)(32,923)(13,739)
Other income, net13 42 36 491 
Net loss$(69,386)$(85,437)$(203,989)$(39,075)
Net loss per common share - basic and diluted$(2.62)$(3.07)$(7.78)$(1.41)
Weighted-average shares outstanding - basic and diluted26,455,20927,830,28126,225,73027,672,325
Other comprehensive loss:
Unrealized loss on investments$ $ $ $(23)
Comprehensive loss$(69,386)$(85,437)$(203,989)$(39,098)
See accompanying notes to the condensed financial statements.

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Esperion Therapeutics, Inc.
Condensed Statements of Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)
(in thousands, except share data)
(unaudited)
Common StockAdditional Paid-In CapitalAccumulated DeficitAccumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)Treasury StockTotal Stockholders' Equity (Deficit)
SharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 2019
27,497,911 $27 $715,166 $(695,266)$23 $ $19,950 
Exercise of stock options40,133 1 1,013 — — — 1,014 
Vesting of restricted stock units10,089 — — — — —  
Stock-based compensation— — 7,053 — — — 7,053 
Other comprehensive loss— — — — (14)— (14)
Net loss— — — (78,249)— — (78,249)
Balance at March 31, 202027,548,133 $28 $723,232 $(773,515)$9 $ $(50,246)
Exercise of stock options160,024 — 3,738 — — 3,738 
Vesting of restricted stock units43,498 — — — —  
Stock-based compensation— — 7,395 — — 7,395 
Other comprehensive loss— — — — (9)(9)
Net income— — — 124,611 — — 124,611 
Balance at June 30, 202027,751,655 $28 $734,365 $(648,904)$ $ $85,489 
Exercise of stock options70,578 — 1,644 — — — 1,644 
Vesting of restricted stock units34,065 — — — — —  
Stock-based compensation— — 7,264 — — — 7,264 
Net loss— — — (85,437)— — (85,437)
Balance at September 30, 202027,856,298 $28 $743,273 $(734,341)$ $ $8,960 

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Common StockAdditional Paid-In CapitalAccumulated DeficitAccumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)Treasury StockTotal Stockholders' Deficit
SharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 202025,916,168 $26 $797,655 $(838,817)$ $(54,998)$(96,134)
Adoption of new accounting pronouncement— — (93,475)1,548 — — (91,927)
Balance at January 1, 202125,916,168 $26 $704,180 $(837,269)$ $(54,998)$(188,061)
Exercise of stock options172,268 — 2,668 — — — 2,668 
Vesting of restricted stock units43,465 — — — — —  
Vesting of ESPP Shares50,818 — 1,183 — — — 1,183 
Stock-based compensation— — 5,751 — — — 5,751 
Net loss— — — (90,935)— — (90,935)
Balance at March 31, 202126,182,719 $26 $713,782 $(928,204)$ $(54,998)$(269,394)
Exercise of stock options10,477 — 168 — — — 168 
Vesting of restricted stock units81,139 — — — — —  
Stock-based compensation— — 8,584 — — — 8,584 
Net loss— — — (43,668)— — (43,668)
Balance at June 30, 202126,274,335 $26 $722,534 $(971,872)$ $(54,998)$(304,310)
Issuance of common stock, net of issuance costs363,061 1 4,206 — — — 4,207 
Exercise of stock options45,996 — 375 — — — 375 
Vesting of restricted stock units34,581 — — — — — — 
Vesting of ESPP Shares82,396 — 912 — — — 912 
Stock-based compensation— — 5,497 — — — 5,497 
Net loss— — — (69,386)— — (69,386)
Balance at September 30, 202126,800,369 $27 $733,524 $(1,041,258)$ $(54,998)$(362,705)
See accompanying notes to the condensed financial statements.
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Esperion Therapeutics, Inc.
Condensed Statements of Cash Flows
(in thousands)
(unaudited)
Nine Months Ended September 30,
20212020
Operating activities
Net loss$(203,989)$(39,075)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:
Depreciation expense459 387 
Accretion of premiums and discounts on investments (97)
Amortization of debt issuance costs1,214  
Non-cash interest expense related to the revenue interest liability23,310 13,739 
Stock-based compensation expense19,832 21,712 
Changes in assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable(9,322)(5,787)
Prepaids and other assets1,096 (2,202)
Deferred revenue2,251 (490)
Inventories(17,836)(9,061)
Other long-term liabilities 1,710 
Accounts payable(30,833)(11,326)
Other accrued liabilities7,715 13,863 
Net cash used in operating activities(206,103)(16,627)
Investing activities
Purchases of investments (4,420)
Proceeds from sales/maturities of investments 39,145 
Purchase of property and equipment (693)
Net cash provided by investing activities 34,032 
Financing activities
Proceeds from revenue interest liability, net of issuance costs49,917 25,000 
Proceeds from issuance of common stock, net of issuance costs4,388  
Proceeds from exercise of common stock options3,211 6,395 
Payments on revenue interest liability(2,263)(110)
Payment of debt issuance costs(440) 
Net cash provided by financing activities54,813 31,285 
Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents(151,290)48,690 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period304,962 167,058 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period$153,672 $215,748 
Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information:
Common stock issuance costs not yet paid$181 $ 
Purchase of property and equipment not yet paid 148 
Non cash right of use asset10 3 
See accompanying notes to the condensed financial statements.

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Esperion Therapeutics, Inc.
Notes to the Condensed Financial Statements
(unaudited)
1. The Company and Basis of Presentation
Esperion Therapeutics, Inc. ("the Company”) is the Lipid Management Company, a pharmaceutical company singularly focused on developing and commercializing affordable, oral, once-daily, non-statin medicines for the treatment of patients struggling with elevated low density lipoprotein cholesterol ("LDL-C"). The Esperion team of lipid experts are dedicated to lowering bad cholesterol through the discovery, development and commercialization of innovative medicines and their combinations with established medicines. The Company's first two products were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ("FDA"), European Medicines Agency ("EMA") and Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Products ("Swissmedic") in 2020. Bempedoic acid and the bempedoic acid / ezetimibe combination tablets are oral, once-daily, non-statin, LDL-C lowering medicines for patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ("ASCVD") or heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia ("HeFH").
On April 26, 2021, the Company entered into a license and collaboration agreement with Daiichi Sankyo Co. Ltd ("DS"). Pursuant to the agreement, the Company granted DS exclusive development and commercialization rights to bempedoic acid and the bempedoic acid / ezetimibe combination tablet in South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Thailand, Vietnam, Brazil, Macao, Cambodia and Myanmar (collectively the "DS Territory"). The agreement allows for potential expansion across geographies including Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, UAE, Qatar, Bahrain, Yemen, Colombia and other Latin American countries. Except for certain development activities in South Korea and Taiwan, DS will be responsible for development and commercialization in these territories. The Company received an upfront cash payment of $30.0 million in May 2021 and is eligible to receive up to an additional $175.0 million in sales milestones. The Company will also receive tiered royalties ranging from 5 percent to 20 percent on net sales in the DS Territory. Refer to Note 3 "Collaborations with Third Parties" for further information.
On April 26, 2021, the Company entered into Amendment No. 2 (the “RIPA Amendment”) to the Revenue Interest Purchase Agreement with Eiger III SA LLC (“Oberland”), an affiliate of Oberland Capital LLC, as agent for the purchaser parties thereto dated as of June 26, 2019 (as amended by the Amendment No. 1 dated as of November 9, 2020, the “RIPA”). Pursuant to the RIPA Amendment, Oberland waived the original trailing six-month world-wide net sales condition to the third installment payment under the RIPA and released the final $50 million payment payable to the Company under the terms of the RIPA. The Company and Oberland also agreed to amend additional terms of the RIPA and the related Security Agreement, which are discussed further in Note 8 "Liability Related to the Revenue Interest Purchase Agreement."
On October 18, 2021, the Company announced its plan to align operational and expense structure to better enable future growth for its two first-in-class oral medicines, NEXLETOL® and NEXLIZET®, and prioritize its investment in the CLEAR Outcomes trial. The Company reduced operational expense across its organization through a corporate workforce reduction of approximately 40% and through targeted program savings. The Company focused its commercialization efforts on an optimized blend of focused outreach including a streamlined sales force, directed to targeted cardiologists and primary care physicians, and a suite of digital initiatives designed to increase awareness and utilization of its medicines in appropriate patients. Refer to Note 16 "Subsequent Events" for further information.

The Company's primary activities since incorporation have been conducting research and development activities, including nonclinical, preclinical and clinical testing, performing business and financial planning, recruiting personnel, and raising capital. The Company received approval by the FDA in February 2020 to commercialize NEXLETOL and NEXLIZET in the U.S., and accordingly commenced principal operations on March 30, 2020 with the commercialization of NEXLETOL. The Company is subject to risks and uncertainties which include the need to successfully commercialize its products, research, develop, and clinically test therapeutic products; obtain regulatory approvals for its products; expand its management, commercial and scientific staff; and finance its operations with an ultimate goal of achieving profitable operations.
The Company has sustained annual operating losses since inception and expects such losses to continue over the foreseeable future. The Company's ability to successfully launch, commercialize and generate revenue from NEXLETOL, NEXLIZET, NILEMDO and NUSTENDI has been and may continue to be adversely affected by the economic impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. In response to the Company’s history of operating losses and the uncertainty around the ongoing impact of COVID-19 management has initiated certain cost optimization measures, including a reduction in force of approximately 40% of its workforce across the United States, or approximately 170 employees, to align operational and expense structure to better enable future growth for its approved products and to prioritize its investment in the CLEAR Outcomes trial. After taking into account the corporate workforce reduction and other targeted program savings, and excluding the $50.0 million of restricted cash (which could remain restricted until the Company's secured obligations under the RIPA are satisfied), the Company expects that its current cash runway allows it to operate into the second quarter of 2022. The Company
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will implement additional cost reduction measures as needed if additional collaboration or capital funding is not available. Additionally, management may continue to fund operations and advance the development of the Company's products and product candidates through a combination of collaborations with third parties, strategic alliances, licensing arrangements, permitted debt financings, permitted royalty-based financings, and permitted private and public equity offerings or through other sources.
If adequate funds are not available, the Company may not be able to continue the development of its current products or future product candidates, or to commercialize its current or future product candidates, if approved.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying condensed interim financial statements are unaudited and were prepared by the Company in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“GAAP”). In the opinion of management, the Company has made all adjustments, which include only normal recurring adjustments necessary for a fair presentation of the Company’s financial position and results of operations for the interim periods presented. Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified to conform with current year presentation. Certain information and disclosures normally included in the annual financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP, but that is not required for interim reporting purposes, have been condensed or omitted. These condensed interim financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2020, and the notes thereto, which are included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020. The results of operations for the interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for a full year, any other interim periods or any future year or period.
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, net revenues, expenses and related disclosures. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Restricted Cash
Restricted cash consists of legally restricted amounts held by financial institutions pursuant to contractual arrangements. Pursuant to the Amendment and Waiver (as defined below), the Company deposited $50.0 million in a deposit account that is subject to a block account control agreement. Oberland will have sole control over the funds deposited in the account and such funds may be withdrawn only with the consent of Oberland. Refer to Note 8 "Liability Related to the Revenue Interest Purchase Agreement" for further information on the Amendment and Waiver.
Concentration of Risk
The Company enters into a limited number of distribution agreements with distributors and specialty pharmacies. The Company's net product sales are with these customers. As of September 30, 2021, ten customers accounted for all of the Company's net trade receivables and as of December 31, 2020 eight customers accounted for all the Company's net trade receivables.
Revenue Recognition
In accordance with ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, the Company recognizes revenue when a customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for the goods or services provided. To determine revenue recognition for arrangements within the scope of ASC 606, the Company performs the following five steps: identify the contracts with a customer; identify the performance obligations in the contract; determine the transaction price; allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and recognize revenue when or as the entity satisfies a performance obligation. At contract inception the Company assesses the goods or services promised within each contract and determines those that are performance obligations and assesses whether each promised good or service is distinct. The Company then recognizes as revenue the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation when or as the performance obligation is satisfied. The Company derives revenue through two primary sources: collaboration revenue and product sales. Collaboration revenue consists of the collaboration payments to the Company for collaboration arrangements outside of the United States for the development,
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manufacturing and commercialization, including royalties, of the Company's product candidates by the Company's partners and product sales consists of sales of NEXLETOL and NEXLIZET.
a.Collaboration Revenue
The Company has entered into agreements related to its activities to develop, manufacture, and commercialize its product candidates. The Company earns collaboration revenue in connection with a collaboration agreement to develop and/or commercialize product candidates where the Company deems the collaborator to be the customer. Revenue is recognized when (or as) the Company satisfies performance obligations under the terms of a contract. Depending on the terms of the arrangement, the Company may defer the recognition of all or a portion of the consideration received as the performance obligations are satisfied.
The collaboration agreements may require the Company to deliver various rights, services, and/or goods across the entire life cycle of a product or product candidate. In an agreement involving multiple goods or services promised to be transferred to a customer, the Company must assess, at the inception of the contract, whether each promise represents a separate performance obligation (i.e., is "distinct"), or whether such promises should be combined as a single performance obligation.
The terms of the agreement typically include consideration to be provided to the Company in the form of non-refundable up-front payments, development milestones, sales milestones, and royalties on sales of products within a respective territory. The Company recognizes regulatory and approval milestones consideration when it is probable that a future reversal is unlikely to occur. For sales based milestones and royalties based on sales of product in a territory, the Company applies the sales-based royalty exception in ASC 606-10-55-65 to all of these milestones and royalties.
At the inception of the contract, the transaction price reflects the amount of consideration the Company expects to be entitled to in exchange for transferring promised goods or services to its customer. In the arrangement where the Company satisfies performance obligation(s) during the regulatory phase over time, the Company recognizes collaboration revenue typically using an input method on the basis of regulatory costs incurred relative to the total expected cost which determines the extent of progress toward completion. The Company reviews the estimate of the transaction price and the total expected cost each period and makes revisions to such estimates as necessary. Under contracted supply agreements with collaborators, the Company, through its third party contract manufacturing partners, may manufacture and supply quantities of active pharmaceutical ingredient (“API”) or bulk tablets reasonably required by collaboration partners for the development or sale of licensed products in their respective territory. The Company recognizes revenue when the collaboration partner has obtained control of the API or bulk tablets. The Company records the costs related to the supply agreement in cost of goods sold on the condensed statements of operations and comprehensive (loss) income.
Under the Company's collaboration agreements, product sales and cost of sales may be recorded by the Company's collaborators as they are deemed to be the principal in the transaction. The Company receives royalties from the commercialization of such products, and records its share of the variable consideration, representing a percentage of net product sales, as collaboration revenue in the period in which such underlying sales occur and costs are incurred by the collaborator.
b.Product Sales, Net
On February 21, 2020, the Company announced that the FDA approved NEXLETOL as an adjunct to diet and maximally tolerated statin therapy for the treatment of adults with HeFH or established ASCVD who require additional lowering of LDL-C. On February 26, 2020, the Company announced that the FDA approved NEXLIZET as an adjunct to diet and maximally tolerated statin therapy for the treatment of adults with HeFH or established ASCVD who require additional lowering of LDL-C. On March 30, 2020, NEXLETOL was commercially available in the U.S. through prescription and on June 4, 2020, NEXLIZET was commercially available in the U.S. through prescription. Net product sales totaled $10.9 million and $27.9 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021 and $3.3 million and $4.8 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively.
The Company sells NEXLETOL and NEXLIZET to wholesalers in the U.S and, in accordance with ASC 606, recognizes revenue at the point in time when the customer is deemed to have obtained control of the product. The customer is deemed to have obtained control of the product at the time of physical receipt of the product at the customers’ distribution facilities, or free on board (“FOB”) destination, the terms of which are designated in the contract.
Product sales are recorded at the net selling price, which includes estimates of variable consideration for which reserves are established for (a) rebates and chargebacks, (b) co-pay assistance programs, (c) distribution fees, (d) product returns, and (e) other discounts. Where appropriate, these estimates take into consideration a range of possible outcomes which are probability-
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weighted for relevant factors such as current contractual and statutory requirements, and forecasted customer buying and payment patterns. Overall, these reserves reflect the Company's best estimates of the amount of consideration to which it is entitled based on the terms of the applicable contract. The amount of variable consideration may be constrained and is included in the net sales price only to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of the cumulative revenue recognized will not occur in a future period. Given the early stage of the Company’s commercial operations it has provided constraint of its variable consideration due to its potential consumption trends. Actual amounts of consideration ultimately received may differ from the Company's estimates. If actual results in the future vary from estimates, the Company adjusts these estimates, which would affect net product revenue and earnings in the period such variances become known.
Liabilities for co-pay assistance, expected product returns, rebates, and distributor fees are classified as “Other accrued liabilities” in the condensed balance sheets. Discounts, such as prompt pay discounts, and chargebacks are recorded as a reduction to trade accounts receivable in the condensed balance sheets.
Forms of Variable Consideration
Rebates and Chargebacks: The Company estimates reductions to product sales for Public Health Service Institutions, such as Medicaid, Medicare and Veterans' Administration ("VA") programs, as well as certain other qualifying federal and state government programs, and other group purchasing organizations. The Company estimates these reductions based upon the Company's contracts with government agencies and other organizations, statutorily defined discounts and estimated payor mix. These organizations purchase directly from the Company's wholesalers at a discount and the wholesalers charge the Company back the difference between the wholesaler price and the discounted price. The Company's liability for Medicaid rebates consists of estimates for claims that a state will make for a current quarter. The Company's reserve for this discounted pricing is based on expected sales to qualified healthcare providers and the chargebacks that customers have already claimed.
Co-pay assistance: Eligible patients who have commercial insurance may receive assistance from the Company to reduce the patient's out of pocket costs. The Company will buy down the difference between the amount of the eligible patient's co-pay when the drug is purchased at the pharmacy at a determined price. Liabilities for co-pay assistance are calculated by actual program participation from third-party administrators.
Distribution Fees: The Company has written contracts with its customers that include terms for distribution fees and costs for inventory management. The Company estimates and records distribution fees due to its customers based on gross sales.
Product Returns: The Company generally offers a right of return based on the product’s expiration date and certain spoilage and damaged instances. The Company estimates the amount of product sales that may be returned and records the estimate as a reduction of product sales in the period the related product sales is recognized. The Company’s estimates for expected returns are based primarily on an ongoing analysis of sales information and visibility into the inventory remaining in the distribution channel.
Discounts: The Company provides product discounts, such as prompt pay discounts, to its customers. The Company estimates cash discounts based on terms in negotiated contracts and the Company’s expectations regarding future payment patterns.
Inventories
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value and recognized on a first-in, first-out ("FIFO") method. The Company uses standard cost to determine the cost basis for inventory. Inventory is capitalized based on when future economic benefit is expected to be realized. The Company began capitalizing inventory upon receiving FDA approval for NEXLETOL and NEXLIZET on February 21, 2020 and February 26, 2020, respectively. Prior to the FDA approval of NEXLETOL and NEXLIZET, expenses associated with the manufacturing of the Company's products were recorded as research and development expense.
The Company analyzes its inventory levels on a periodic basis to determine if any inventory is at risk for expiration prior to sale or has a cost basis that is greater than its estimated future net realizable value. Any adjustments are recognized through cost of goods sold in the period in which they are incurred.
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Recently Implemented Accounting Pronouncements
In August 2020, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2020-06, Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40) (“ASU 2020-06”). This ASU simplifies the accounting for convertible instruments by removing the separation models for convertible debt with cash conversion features and convertible instruments with a beneficial conversion feature, which requires the fair value of the embedded conversion feature of convertible instruments be allocated to equity. Under ASU 2020-06, a convertible debt instrument with those features will generally be reported as a single liability at its amortized cost with no separate accounting for the embedded conversion features in equity. The adoption of this ASU resulted in the reclassification of the portion of the Company's convertible notes from equity to debt, which also reduces reported interest expense and increases reported net income. ASU 2020-06 requires the application of the if-converted method when calculating diluted earnings per share, eliminating the Company’s ability to use the treasury stock method when certain conditions are met. The ASU is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2021, with early adoption permitted no earlier than fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020. The Company early adopted this standard as of January 1, 2021 which resulted in a net increase in the convertible notes of approximately $92.0 million, an adjustment to accumulated deficit of $1.5 million, and a reduction to additional paid-in capital of $93.5 million. The tax impact of the adoption was not material.
There have been no other material changes to the significant accounting policies previously disclosed in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.
3. Collaborations with Third Parties
DSE Agreement Terms
On January 2, 2019, the Company entered into a license and collaboration agreement with Daiichi Sankyo Europe GmbH ("DSE"). Pursuant to the agreement, the Company granted DSE exclusive commercialization rights to bempedoic acid and the bempedoic acid / ezetimibe combination tablets in the European Economic Area and Switzerland (“DSE Territory”). DSE will be responsible for commercialization in the DSE Territory. The Company remains responsible for clinical development, regulatory and manufacturing activities for the licensed products globally, including in the DSE Territory.
Pursuant to the agreement, the consideration consists of a $150.0 million upfront cash payment as well as $150.0 million cash payment to the Company upon first commercial sales in the DSE Territory. The Company also is responsible to supply DSE with certain manufacturing supply of the API or bulk tablets. The Company is also eligible to receive a substantial additional regulatory milestone payment upon the grant of the marketing authorisation in the European Union for the CV risk reduction label, depending on the range of relative risk reduction in the CLEAR Outcomes study. In addition, the Company is eligible to receive additional sales milestone payments related to total net sales achievements for DSE in the DSE Territory. Finally, the Company will receive tiered fifteen percent (15%) to twenty-five percent (25%) royalties on net DSE Territory sales.
The agreement calls for both parties to participate in a Joint Collaboration Committee (the “DSE JCC”). The DSE JCC is comprised of executive management from each company and the Company will lead in all aspects related to development and DSE will lead in all aspects related to commercialization in the DSE Territory.
Agreement Terms Amendment
On June 18, 2020, the Company entered into an amendment to the license and collaboration agreement with DSE, dated as of January 2, 2019. In June 2020, the Company completed the transfer of the MAAs for NILEMDO® and NUSTENDI®. Pursuant to the terms of the amendment, DSE paid the Company the second $150.0 million milestone based on completion of the NUSTENDI MAA transfer rather than the first product sale in the EU, as previously agreed. Additionally, the Company and DSE have agreed to expand the DSE Territory, or the territory in which DSE has exclusive commercialization rights to NILEMDO and NUSTENDI to include Turkey. DSE's designated affiliate in Turkey will be solely responsible, at its sole cost and expense, for all regulatory matters relating to such products in Turkey, including obtaining regulatory approval for such products in Turkey.
Collaboration Revenue
The Company considered the guidance under ASC 606 and concluded that the agreement was in the scope of ASC 606. The Company concluded that the upfront payment of $150.0 million should be included in the transaction price and related to
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the following performance obligations under the agreement: 1) the license to the Company’s intellectual property and 2) the obligation to provide ongoing regulatory and development activities. The Company used the adjusted market assessment approach in determining the standalone selling price of the Company’s intellectual property and the expected cost plus margin approach in determining the standalone selling price of the Company’s obligation to provide ongoing regulatory and development activities. In the nine months ended September 30, 2020, the Company recognized approximately $1.6 million, related to the on-going performance obligation for the ongoing regulatory efforts related to the MAA in the DSE Territory, which was transferred to DSE in June 2020.
In the nine months ended September 30, 2020, the Company recognized the $150.0 million milestone as collaboration revenue based on the successful transfer of the NUSTENDI MAA.
In addition, in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, the Company recognized collaboration revenue of approximately $3.3 million and $6.9 million related to royalty revenue from DSE following their European launch of NILEMDO and NUSTENDI as well as the sales of bulk tablets to DSE pursuant to the supply agreement that was executed with DSE. In the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, the Company recognized collaboration revenue of $0.5 million and $1.5 million related to the sales of bulk tablets of NILEMDO and NUSTENDI to DSE.
All remaining future potential milestone amounts were not included in the transaction price, as they were all determined to be fully constrained following the concepts of ASC 606 due to the fact that such amounts hinge on development activities, regulatory approvals and sales-based milestones. Additionally, the Company expects that any consideration related to sales-based milestones will be recognized when the subsequent sales occur.
Otsuka Agreement Terms
On April 17, 2020, the Company entered into the Otsuka Agreement with Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. ("Otsuka"). Pursuant to the Otsuka Agreement, the Company granted Otsuka exclusive development and commercialization rights to NEXLETOL and NEXLIZET in Japan. Otsuka will be responsible for all development, regulatory, and commercialization activities in Japan. In addition, Otsuka will fund all clinical development costs associated with the program in Japan.
Pursuant to the agreement, the consideration consists of a $60.0 million upfront cash payment and the Company will be eligible to receive additional payments of up to $450.0 million if certain regulatory and commercial milestones are achieved by Otsuka. The potential future milestone payments include up to $20.0 million upon first JNDA submissions in the Otsuka Territory, up to $70.0 million upon the first NHI Price Listing for NEXLETOL in the Otsuka Territory, and up to $50.0 million upon the achievement of the primary major adverse cardiovascular events (“MACE”) in the CLEAR Outcomes study and the CV risk reduction rate on the U.S. label, depending on the range of relative risk reduction in the CLEAR Outcomes study. In addition, the Company is eligible to receive additional sales milestone payments up to $310.0 million related to total net sales achievements for Otsuka in Japan. Finally, the Company will receive tiered fifteen percent (15%) to thirty percent (30%) royalties on net sales in Japan.
The agreement calls for both parties to participate in a Joint Collaboration Committee (the "Otsuka JCC"). The Otsuka JCC is comprised of executive management from each company and Otsuka will lead in all aspects related to development and commercialization in the Otsuka Territory.
Collaboration Revenue
The Company considered the guidance under ASC 606 and concluded that the agreement was in the scope of ASC 606. The Company did not have any collaboration revenue from the Otsuka Agreement during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021. In the nine months ended September 30, 2020, the Company recognized $60.0 million of collaboration revenue related to the $60.0 million upfront payment.
All future potential milestone amounts were not included in the transaction price, as they were all determined to be fully constrained following the concepts of ASC 606 due to the fact that such amounts hinge on development activities, regulatory approvals and sales-based milestones. Additionally, the Company expects that any consideration related to royalties and sales-based milestones will be recognized when the subsequent sales occur.
The Company has not yet recognized any revenue for milestone payments as the related regulatory and commercial milestones have not yet been achieved.
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DS Agreement Terms
On April 26, 2021, the Company entered into a license and collaboration agreement with Daiichi Sankyo Company, Limited ("DS Agreement"). Pursuant to the DS Agreement, the Company granted DS exclusive rights to develop and commercialize bempedoic acid and the bempedoic acid / ezetimibe combination tablet (the "Products") in South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Thailand, Vietnam, Brazil, Macao, Cambodia and Myanmar (collectively the "DS Territory"). The agreement allows for potential expansion across geographies including Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, UAE, Qatar, Bahrain, Yemen, Colombia and other Latin American countries. Except for certain development activities in South Korea and Taiwan, DS will be responsible development and commercialization in these territories. In addition, DS will fund all development costs associated with the program in the DS Territory.
Pursuant to the agreement, the consideration consists of a $30.0 million upfront cash payment that is non-refundable, non-reimbursable and non-creditable. The Company will be eligible to receive additional one-time payments of up to $175.0 million if certain commercial milestones are achieved by DS. Also, the Company will receive tiered royalties of five percent (5%) to twenty percent (20%) of net sales in the DS Territory.
The agreement requires the parties to establish a joint collaboration committee (the "Joint Collaboration Committee" or "JCC"). The Joint Collaboration Committee is composed of six (6) members, with each Party contributing three (3) representatives each who are employees of such Party with main responsibility of overseeing the Development and Commercialization activities relating to the Licensed Products in the Field in the DS Territory and other responsibilities as stated in the Agreement.
Collaboration Revenue
The Company considered the guidance under ASC 606 and concluded that the agreement was in the scope of ASC 606. The Company concluded that the upfront payment of $30.0 million should be included in the transaction price and related to the following performance obligations under the agreement: 1) the license to the Company’s intellectual property and 2) the obligation to provide ongoing development activities. The Company used the adjusted market assessment approach in determining the standalone selling price of the Company’s intellectual property and the expected cost plus margin approach in determining the standalone selling price of the Company’s obligation to provide ongoing development activities. Accordingly, for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, the Company recognized $0.2 million and $28.3 million of collaboration revenue, respectively, related to the $30.0 million upfront payment. The $28.3 million relates to the performance obligations for the license to the Company’s intellectual property and a portion of ongoing regulatory and development activities conducted during the period ended September 30, 2021, in the amounts of $28.0 million and $0.3 million, respectively. The remaining $1.7 million of the upfront payment was deferred as of September 30, 2021 due to an on-going performance obligation related to the developmental activities in South Korea and Taiwan. This deferred revenue will be recognized ratably over the period leading up to the completion of these developmental activities.
All future potential milestone amounts were not included in the transaction price, as they were all determined to be fully constrained following the concepts of ASC 606 due to the fact that such amounts hinge on development activities, regulatory approvals and sales-based milestones. Additionally, the Company expects that any consideration related to royalties and sales-based milestones will be recognized when the subsequent sales occur.
Other Agreements
During December 2020, the Company entered into a licensing agreement with Serometrix to in-license a series of early stage compounds known as scaffolds related to its oral, small molecule PCSK9 inhibitor program. PCSK9 is an enzyme responsible for regulating LDL receptors. PCSK9 inhibitors stop LDL receptors from being broken down, increasing the number of LDL receptors present to remove cholesterol from the blood. The agreement allows the Company use of the PCSK9 compounds, which were patented by Serometrix prior to the licensing agreement, to perform further research and development with the goal of developing a small molecule oral PCSK9 inhibitor that can be taken as a tablet.
In exchange for these rights, the Company agreed to pay Serometrix an upfront payment, milestone payments and royalties on net sales of licensed products under the agreement. The Company is obligated to make milestone payments to Serometrix upon the achievement of specified development, regulatory and commercialization milestones. The development milestone payments due under the agreement depend on the licensed product being developed. As part of the agreement, the Company made an upfront cash payment of $12.5 million in December 2020, which was recorded to research and development expense, to Serometrix, with payments in future years tied to specific milestones. The Company has also agreed to pay tiered royalties based on net sales of all products licensed under the agreement of mid-single-digit to low double-digit percentages.
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4. Inventories, net
Inventories, net consist of the following (in thousands):
September 30, 2021December 31, 2020
Raw materials$30,282 $13,788 
Work in process1,302 2,028 
Finished goods2,388 320 
$33,972 $16,136 
5. Commitments and Contingencies
On January 12, 2016, a purported stockholder of the Company filed a putative class action lawsuit in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan, against the Company and Tim Mayleben, captioned Kevin L. Dougherty v. Esperion Therapeutics, Inc., et al. (No. 16-cv-10089). The lawsuit alleges that the Company and Mr. Mayleben violated Sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and SEC Rule 10b-5 by allegedly failing to disclose in an August 17, 2015, public statement that the FDA would require a cardiovascular outcomes trial before approving the Company’s lead product candidate. The lawsuit seeks, among other things, compensatory damages in connection with an allegedly inflated stock price between August 18, 2015, and September 28, 2015, as well as attorneys’ fees and costs. On May 20, 2016, an amended complaint was filed in the lawsuit and on July 5, 2016, the Company filed a motion to dismiss the amended complaint. On December 27, 2016, the court granted the Company’s motion to dismiss with prejudice and entered judgment in the Company’s favor. On January 24, 2017, the plaintiffs in this lawsuit filed a motion to alter or amend the judgment. In May 2017, the court denied the plaintiff’s motion to alter or amend the judgment.  In May 2017, the court denied the plaintiff’s motion to alter or amend the judgment. On June 19, 2017, the plaintiffs filed a notice of appeal to the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals and on September 14, 2017, they filed their opening brief in support of the appeal. The appeal was fully briefed on December 7, 2017, and it was argued before the Sixth Circuit on March 15, 2018. On September 27, 2018, the Sixth Circuit issued an opinion in which it reversed the district court’s dismissal and remanded for further proceedings. On October 11, 2018, the Company filed a petition for rehearing en banc and, on October 23, 2018, the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals directed plaintiffs to respond to that petition. On December 3, 2018, the Sixth Circuit denied the Company’s petition for en banc rehearing, and on December 11, 2018, the case was returned to the federal district court by mandate from the Sixth Circuit. On December 26, 2018, the Company filed an answer to the amended complaint, and on March 28, 2019, the Company filed its amended answer to the amended complaint. On September 15, 2020, the Company filed a motion for summary judgment, and the plaintiffs filed a motion for partial summary judgment, and on October 23, 2020, the parties filed oppositions to both motions for summary judgment. On November 20, 2020, the Company and plaintiffs filed replies in support of their respective motions. On March 12, 2021, the parties agreed to a settlement in principle of the securities class action, and on April 26, 2021, the parties entered into a stipulation of settlement to resolve all legal claims, in which defendants expressly deny that they have committed any act or omission giving rise to any liability under Section 10(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Under the terms of the stipulation of settlement, which the court approved on August 24, 2021, the Company and certain of the Company's insurance carriers caused a payment of $18.25 million to be made to the plaintiff class. As a result of this settlement agreement, during the three months ended March 31, 2021, the Company recorded a loss on settlement of $13.25 million in selling, general, and administrative expenses on the condensed statement of operations, which represents the litigation settlement of $18.25 million offset by $5.0 million in insurance claim proceeds from our insurance carriers.

On December 15, 2016, a purported stockholder of the Company filed a derivative lawsuit in the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware against Tim Mayleben, Roger Newton, Mary McGowan, Nicole Vitullo, Dov Goldstein, Daniel Janney, Antonio Gotto Jr., Mark McGovern, Gilbert Omenn, Scott Braunstein, and Patrick Enright. The Company is named as a nominal defendant. The lawsuit alleges that the defendants breached their fiduciary duties to the Company when they made or approved improper statements on August 17, 2015, regarding the Company’s lead product candidate’s path to FDA approval, and failed to ensure that reliable systems of internal controls were in place at the Company. On February 8, 2019, the Company and defendants filed a motion to dismiss the derivative lawsuit. On April 23, 2019, the plaintiff filed an opposition to the motion to dismiss the derivative lawsuit, and the Company filed a reply brief on May 15, 2019. On November 6, 2019, the court held a hearing on the motion to dismiss. On February 13, 2020, the court granted the motion to dismiss with prejudice and entered judgment in the Company’s favor. On March 16, 2020, the plaintiff filed a notice of appeal to the Supreme Court of Delaware. On June 1, 2020, the plaintiff filed his opening brief on appeal to the Supreme Court of Delaware. On July 1, 2020, the Company and the defendants filed an answering brief, and on July 16, 2020, the plaintiff filed a reply brief. On October 14, 2020, the Supreme Court of Delaware held oral arguments on the appeal. On October 29, 2020, the Supreme Court of Delaware issued an order affirming the judgment of the Court of Chancery.
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There have been no other material changes to the Company’s contractual obligations and commitments and contingencies outside the ordinary course of business from those previously disclosed in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 or noted above.
6. Investments
The following table summarizes the Company’s cash equivalents, restricted cash, and short-term investments (in thousands):
September 30, 2021
Amortized
Cost
Gross Unrealized GainsGross Unrealized LossesEstimated
Fair
Value
Cash equivalents and restricted cash:
Money market funds$130,766 $ $ $130,766 
Total$130,766 $ $ $130,766 
December 31, 2020
Amortized
Cost
Gross Unrealized GainsGross Unrealized LossesEstimated
Fair
Value
Cash equivalents:
Money market funds$281,783 $ $ $281,783 
Total$281,783 $ $ $281,783 
During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, other income, net in the statements of operations includes interest income on investments of less than $0.1 million and less than $0.1 million, respectively.
During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, other income, net in the statements of operations includes interest income on investments of less than $0.1 million and $0.5 million, respectively.
There were no unrealized gains or losses on investments reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) to other income in the statements of operations during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020.
In the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, there were no allowances for credit losses and all unrealized gains (losses) for available-for-sale securities were recognized in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). As of September 30, 2021, the Company had no accrued interest receivables.
7. Fair Value Measurements
The Company follows accounting guidance that emphasizes that fair value is a market-based measurement, not an entity-specific measurement. Fair value is defined as “the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.” Fair value measurements are defined on a three level hierarchy:
Level 1 inputs:    Quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in active markets;
Level 2 inputs:Observable inputs other than Level 1 prices, such as quoted market prices for similar assets or liabilities or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by market data; and
Level 3 inputs:Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and require the reporting entity to develop assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability.
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The following table presents the Company’s financial assets that have been measured at fair value on a recurring basis (in thousands):
DescriptionTotalLevel 1Level 2Level 3
September 30, 2021
Assets:
Money market funds$130,766 $130,766 $ $ 
Total assets at fair value$130,766 $130,766 $ $ 
December 31, 2020
Assets:
Money market funds$281,743 $281,743 $ $ 
Total assets at fair value$281,743 $281,743 $ $ 
There were no transfers between Levels 1, 2 or 3 during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020.
8. Liability Related to the Revenue Interest Purchase Agreement
On June 26, 2019, the Company entered into a RIPA with Oberland, as agent for purchasers party thereto (the “Purchasers”), and the Purchasers named therein, to obtain financing in respect to the commercialization and further development of bempedoic acid and the bempedoic acid / ezetimibe combination tablets and other working capital needs. Pursuant to the RIPA, the Company received $125.0 million at closing, less certain issuance costs. The Company was also entitled to receive up to approximately $75.0 million in subsequent installments subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the RIPA: (i) $25.0 million upon certain regulatory approval of its product candidates and (ii) $50.0 million, at the Company’s option, upon reaching $100.0 million trailing worldwide six-month net sales any time prior to December 31, 2021 (the “Third Payment”). In March 2020, the Company received $25.0 million from Oberland upon receiving regulatory approval of NEXLETOL.
As consideration for such payments, the Purchasers have a right to receive certain revenue interests (the “Revenue Interests”) from the Company based upon net sales of the Company’s certain products which will be tiered payments initially ranging from 2.5% to 7.5% of the Company’s net sales in the covered territory (the “Covered Territory”); provided that (a) if annual net sales equal or exceed $350.0 million by December 31, 2021 (the “Sales Threshold”), the initially tiered revenue interest rate will be decreased to a single rate of 2.5% of the Company’s net sales in the Covered Territory, beginning on January 1, 2022, and (b) if annual net sales equal or exceed the Sales Threshold and if the Purchasers receive 100% of their invested capital by December 31, 2024, the revenue interest rate will be decreased to a single rate of 0.4% of the Company’s net sales in the Covered Territory beginning on January 1, 2025. If the Third Payment is drawn down by the Company, the applicable royalty rates will increase by one-third. The Covered Territory is the United States, but is subject to expand to include the world-wide net sales if the Company’s annual U.S. net sales are less than $350.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. The U.S. net sales milestone thresholds are not to be taken as financial guidance. The Purchasers’ rights to receive the Revenue Interests shall terminate on the date on which the Purchasers have received Revenue Interests payments of 195% of the then aggregate purchase price (the “Cumulative Purchaser Payments”) paid to the Company, unless the RIPA is terminated earlier.
Under the RIPA, the Company has an option (the “Call Option”) to terminate the RIPA and repurchase future Revenue Interests at any time upon advance written notice. Additionally, the Purchasers have an option (the “Put Option”) to terminate the RIPA and to require the Company to repurchase future Revenue Interests upon enumerated events such as a bankruptcy event, an uncured material breach, a material adverse effect or a change of control. If the Put Option is exercised prior to the first anniversary of the closing date by the Purchasers (except pursuant to a change of control), the required repurchase price will be 120% of the Cumulative Purchaser Payments (minus all payments Company has made to the Purchasers in connection with the Revenue Interests). In all other cases, if the Put Option or the Call Option are exercised, the required repurchase price will be 175% of the Cumulative Purchaser Payments (minus all payments Company has made to the Purchasers in connection with the Revenue Interests), if such option is exercised prior to the third anniversary of the closing date, and 195% of the Cumulative Purchaser Payments (minus all payments Company has made to the Purchasers in connection with the Revenue Interests), if such option is exercised thereafter.
In addition, the RIPA contains various representations and warranties, information rights, non-financial covenants, indemnification obligations and other provisions that are customary for a transaction of this nature.
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RIPA Amendments

On April 26, 2021, the Company entered into Amendment No. 2 (the “RIPA Amendment”) to the RIPA with Oberland, as agent for the purchaser parties thereto. Pursuant to the RIPA Amendment, Oberland waived the original trailing six-month world-wide net sales condition to the third installment payment under the RIPA and released the final $50 million payment payable to the Company under the terms of the RIPA. The Company and Oberland also agreed to amend additional terms of the RIPA such that the purchasers will have a right to receive certain revenue interests (the “Revenue Interests”) from the Company based on net sales of the Company’s certain products, once approved, which will be tiered payments ranging from 3.33% to 10% (the “Third Payment Applicable Percentage”) of the Company’s net sales in the covered territory (the “Covered Territory”); provided that (a) prior to December 31, 2024, with respect to each country defined in the Daiichi Territory, if the percentage of net sales that Company receives from Daiichi (the “Receivables Percentage”) is less than the Third Payment Applicable Percentage, then the Revenue Interest for such country payable to the purchasers will be equal to the Receivables Percentages, (b) if annual net sales equal or exceed $350 million and if the Purchasers receive 100% of their invested capital (
Cumulative Purchaser Payments") by December 31, 2024, the revenue interest rate will be decreased to a single rate of 3.33% of the Company’s net sales in the Covered Territory for all subsequent calendar quarters and (c) if the Purchasers receive Revenue Interest payments less than 100% of Cumulative Purchaser Payments by December 31, 2024, the Third Payment Applicable Percentage will be increased to a single rate of the Company’s net sales that would have provided 100% of Cumulative Purchaser Payments had such rate applied from the initial funding by the Purchasers. The Covered Territory was originally the United States, but has been expanded to worldwide for all calendar years beginning on or after January 1, 2022.

Under the RIPA, the Company has an option (the “Call Option”) to terminate the RIPA and repurchase future Revenue Interests at any time upon advance written notice. Additionally, the Purchasers have an option (the “Put Option”) to terminate the RIPA and to require the Company to repurchase future Revenue Interests upon enumerated events such as a bankruptcy event, an uncured material breach, a material adverse effect or a change of control. If the Put Option or the Call Option are exercised, the required repurchase price will be 200% of the Cumulative Purchaser Payments (minus all payments Company has made to the Purchasers in connection with the Revenue Interests), if such option is exercised prior to the third anniversary of the closing date, and 225% of the Cumulative Purchaser Payments (minus all payments Company has made to the Purchasers in connection with the Revenue Interests), if such option is exercised thereafter.

In accordance with the guidance in ASC 470‑50, “Debt—Modifications and Extinguishments,” the RIPA Amendment was accounted for as a debt modification. The amendment resulted in a $0.1 million loss on modification of debt, consisting of third-party fees associated with the transaction, which is included in selling, general, and administrative expenses in the statements of operations for the nine months ended September 30, 2021.

On May 16, 2021, the Company entered into an Amendment to the Security Agreement and Waiver ("Amendment and Waiver") with the same parties to the Security Agreement, by and among the Company, Eiger Partners II LP (the "Purchaser") and Eiger III SA LLC (the "Purchaser Agent"), dated as of June 26, 2019 (the "Security Agreement"). Pursuant to the Amendment and Waiver, if (i) the net revenue from sales of NEXLETOL and NEXLIZET and certain other products in the United States (as reported in the Company’s financial statements as “product sales, net” in accordance with GAAP and excluding, for the avoidance of doubt, upfront or milestone payments and other collaboration revenue) (the “Specified Net Revenue”) for the calendar quarter ended September 30, 2021 does not exceed $15.0 million, or (ii) the Specified Net Revenue for any calendar quarter ending after September 30, 2021 does not exceed $15.0 million, then the Company shall deposit $50.0 million in a deposit account that is subject to a block account control agreement in favor of the Purchase Agent, no later than the earlier of (x) the date the Specified Net Revenue for such calendar quarter has been determined and (y) 45 days after the last day of such calendar quarter. Since the Specified Net Revenue for the calendar quarter ended September 30, 2021 did not exceed $15.0 million, the Company deposited $50.0 million in a deposit account that is subject to a block account control agreement, which is classified as restricted cash on the condensed balance sheets. The Purchaser Agent shall have sole dominion and control over all funds deposited in the deposited account and such funds may be withdrawn therefrom only with the consent of the Purchaser Agent. Upon the occurrence and during the continuance of a Put Option Event, the Purchaser Agent shall have the right to apply amounts held in the deposit account in payment of certain secured obligations in the manner provided for in the Security Agreement. The Amendment and Wavier does not substitute, replace or release the Pledgors from any other obligations under the RIPA or Security Agreement.
In connection with the arrangement, as of September 30, 2021, the Company has recorded a liability, referred to as the “Revenue interest liability” in the condensed balance sheets, of $247.6 million, net of $0.5 million of capitalized issuance costs in connection with the RIPA. The Company imputes interest expense associated with this liability using the effective interest rate method. The effective interest rate is calculated based on the rate that would enable the debt to be repaid in full over the anticipated life of the arrangement. The interest rate on this liability may vary during the term of the agreement depending on a number of factors, including the level of forecasted net sales. The Company evaluates the interest rate quarterly based on its current net sales forecasts utilizing the prospective method.
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A significant increase or decrease in net sales will materially impact the revenue interest liability, interest expense and the time period for repayment. The Company recorded approximately $10.4 million and $23.3 million in interest expense related to this arrangement for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, and $4.9 million and $13.7 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively.
The repayment of the RIPA to Oberland does not have a fixed repayment schedule, rather it will be completely repaid and extinguished when the Company has repaid 200% of the aggregate purchase price prior to the third anniversary of the closing date, and 225% of the Cumulative Purchaser Payments thereafter, unless the RIPA is terminated earlier. Since there is not a fixed repayment schedule, the Company does not project its future repayments by year. Each period, the Company estimates the future expected sales of its products in the covered territory and determines the effective annual imputed interest rate, which updates and changes the timing of the Company’s payments. Under the terms of the agreement, every $100 million of net sales generated, less than or equal to $250 million in an annual aggregate year, would result in a repayment obligation of approximately $10.0 million or 10.0% at the stated repayment rate in the first year. Annual Net Sales for a calendar year exceeding $250 million would result in a repayment obligation of approximately $3.3 million or 3.3% for every $100 million of sales above the threshold. If the Company equals or exceeds $350 million of sales in the U.S. in 2021, then the repayment amount would drop to $3.3 million for every $100 million of net sales starting in 2022. If the US net sales are less than $350 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, then the Covered Territory is expanded to include worldwide sales beginning in 2022. The Company’s repayments of the RIPA are directly tied to the growth of its net sales, and as the Company’s net sales grow, the Company expects the related repayments of the RIPA to grow as well. The Company currently expects to repay $14.0 million in the next twelve months.
The effective annual imputed interest rate is 17.2% as of September 30, 2021. The Company incurred $0.6 million of issuance costs in connection with the RIPA, which will be amortized to interest expense over the estimated term of the RIPA. Payments made to Oberland as a result of the Company’s net sales will reduce the revenue interest liability.
The following table summarizes the revenue interest liability activity during the nine months ended September 30, 2021:
(in thousands)
Total revenue interest liability at December 31, 2020$176,604 
  Oberland funding upon execution of Amendment No. 2, net of issuance costs
49,917 
Interest expense recognized23,310 
Revenue Interests payments(2,263)
Total revenue interest liability at September 30, 2021$247,568 

9. Convertible Notes
On November 16, 2020, the Company issued $250.0 million aggregate principal amount of 4.0% senior subordinated convertible notes due November 15, 2025. The net proceeds the Company received from the offering of the initial notes was approximately $242.0 million, after deducting the initial purchasers’ discounts and commissions and offering expenses payable by the Company. In connection with the offering of the senior subordinated convertible notes, the Company granted the initial purchasers of the senior subordinated convertible notes a 30-day option to purchase up to an additional $30.0 million aggregate principal amount of the senior subordinated convertible notes on the same terms and conditions. On November 18, 2020 the option was exercised, which resulted in approximately $29.1 million of additional proceeds, for total aggregate principal of $280.0 million and net proceeds of $271.1 million (the additional notes and, together with the initial notes, collectively called the “Convertible Notes”). The Company used approximately $46.0 million of the net proceeds from the offering of the notes to pay the cost of the Capped Call (as defined below) and $55.0 million of the net proceeds from the offering of the initial notes to finance the Prepaid Forward (as defined below). The Convertible Notes are the Company's senior unsecured obligations and mature on November 15, 2025 (the “Maturity Date”), unless earlier repurchased or converted into shares of common stock under certain circumstances described below. The Convertible Notes are convertible into shares of the Company’s common stock, can be repurchased for cash, or a combination thereof, at the Company’s election, at an initial conversion rate of 30.2151 shares of common stock per $1,000 principal amount of the Convertible Notes, which is equivalent to an initial conversion price of approximately $33.096 per share of common stock, subject to adjustment. The Company will pay interest on the Convertible Notes semi-annually in arrears on May 15 and November 15 of each year.
The Convertible Notes are general unsecured obligations of the Company that are subordinated in right of payment to indebtedness, obligations and other liabilities under the Company’s RIPA, the revenue interests issued pursuant to such agreement, and any refinancing of the foregoing.
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Holders may convert their Convertible Notes at their option at any time prior to the close of business on the business day immediately preceding August 15, 2025 in the following circumstances: (1) during any calendar quarter commencing after the calendar quarter ended on March 31, 2021 (and only during such calendar quarter), if the last reported sale price per share of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share (“common stock”), is greater than or equal to 130% of the conversion price for each of at least 20 trading days, whether or not consecutive, during the 30 consecutive trading days ending on, and including, the last trading day of the immediately preceding calendar quarter; (2) during the five business days after any five consecutive trading day period (such five consecutive trading day period, the “measurement period”) in which the trading price per $1,000 principal amount of notes for each trading day of the measurement period was less than 98% of the product of the last reported sale price per share of the Company’s common stock and the conversion rate for the notes on each such trading day; (3) if the Company calls such notes for redemption, any such notes that have been called for redemption may be converted at any time prior to the close of business on the second scheduled trading day immediately preceding the redemption date, but only with respect to the notes called for redemption; and (4) upon the occurrence of specified corporate events, as provided in the Indenture.
On or after August 15, 2025, to the close of business on the second scheduled trading day immediately before the maturity date, holders may convert all or any portion of their notes at the applicable conversion rate at any time at the option of the holder regardless of the foregoing conditions.
In addition, following certain corporate events or following issuance of a notice of redemption, the Company will, in certain circumstances, increase the conversion rate for a holder who elects to convert its notes in connection with such a corporate event or to convert its notes called (or deemed called) for redemption during the related redemption period, as the case may be.
The Convertible Notes will be redeemable, in whole or in part, at the Company’s option at any time, and from time to time, on or after November 20, 2023 and before the 41st scheduled trading day immediately before the maturity date, at a cash redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the notes to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, but only if the last reported sale price per share of the Company’s common stock has been at least 130% of the conversion price then in effect for at least 20 trading days (whether or not consecutive), including the trading day immediately preceding the date the Company sends the related redemption notice, during any 30 consecutive trading day period ending on, and including, the trading day immediately preceding the date on which the Company sends such redemption notice. No sinking fund is provided for the notes. If the Company redeems less than all the outstanding notes, at least $125.0 million aggregate principal amount of notes must be outstanding and not subject to redemption as of the relevant redemption notice date.
If the Company undergoes a “fundamental change” (as defined in the Indenture), holders may require the Company to repurchase their notes for cash all or any portion of their notes at a fundamental change repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest, to, but excluding, the fundamental change repurchase date. The Indenture includes customary terms and covenants, including certain events of default.
The Company incurred approximately $8.9 million of issuance costs related to the issuance of the Convertible Notes, of which, prior to the adoption of ASU 2020-06 on January 1, 2021, $5.8 million and $3.1 million were allocated and recorded to long-term debt and additional paid-in capital, respectively. The $5.8 million of issuance costs recorded as long-term debt on the condensed balance sheet are amortized over the five-year contractual term of the Convertible Notes using the effective interest method.
Prior to the adoption of ASU 2020-06 on January 1, 2021, the $271.1 million of proceeds received from the issuance of the Convertible Notes were allocated between long-term debt (the “liability component”) of $177.6 million and additional paid-in capital (the “equity component”) of $93.5 million. The fair value of the liability component was measured using rates determined for similar debt instruments without a conversion feature. The carrying amount of the equity component, representing the conversion option, was determined by deducting the fair value of the liability component from the aggregate face value of the Convertible Notes and was included in additional paid-in capital in the condensed balance sheet and was not remeasured as long as it did not to meet the conditions for equity classification. The liability component was to be accreted up to the face value of the Convertible Notes of $280.0 million, which resulted in additional non-cash interest expense being recognized through the Maturity Date.
With the adoption of ASU 2020-06 as of January 1, 2021, the Company reports the convertible debt liability at the aggregate principal amount less unamortized issuance costs. This resulted in the reclassification of the $93.5 million of the Company’s convertible notes recognized at December 31, 2020 from additional paid in capital to the convertible debt liability. The portion of interest expense previously recognized for the accretion of the convertible debt liability and the true-up of the amortization of the issuance costs of $1.5 million was recorded as an adjustment to accumulated deficit.
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The following tables summarizes the outstanding principal and debt issuance cost balances as follows (in thousands):
Convertible note, debt balanceDebt issuance costConvertible notes, net
Balance at December 31, 2020185,100 (5,733)179,367 
Adjustments to net principal due to adoption of ASU 2020-0694,900 (2,973)91,927 
Balance at January 1, 2021280,000 (8,706)271,294 
Balance at September 30, 2021280,000 (7,492)272,508 
The Company recorded $3.2 million and $9.6 million of interest expense during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, relating to the cash interest on the convertible notes due semi-annually and amortization of the debt issuance costs.
As of September 30, 2021, no Convertible Notes were convertible pursuant to their terms. The estimated fair value of the Convertible Notes was $174.8 million and $283.4 million as of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. The estimated fair value of the Convertible Notes was determined through consideration of quoted market prices. As of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the if-converted value of the Convertible Notes did not exceed the principal value of those notes.
On October 22, 2021, the Company entered into a privately negotiated exchange agreement (the “Exchange Agreement”) with two co-managed holders (the “Holders”) of its Convertible Notes. Under the terms of the Exchange Agreement the Holders agreed to exchange (the “Exchange”) with the Company $15.0 million aggregate principal amount of the Convertible Notes held in the aggregate by them (and accrued interest thereon) for shares of the Company’s common stock. Pursuant to the Exchange Agreement, the number of shares of common stock to be issued by the Company to the Holders upon consummation of the Exchange will be determined based upon the volume-weighted-average-price per share of common stock, subject to a floor of $5.62 per share, during the five trading-day averaging period, commencing on the trading day immediately following the date of the Exchange Agreement. The Exchange is expected to close on November 3, 2021, subject to the satisfaction of customary closing conditions.
Capped Call Transactions
In connection with the offering of the Convertible Notes, the Company entered into privately-negotiated capped call transactions with one of the initial purchasers of the convertible notes or its affiliate and certain other financial institutions. The Company used approximately $46.0 million of the net proceeds from the offering of the Convertible Notes to pay the cost of the capped call transactions. The capped call transactions are expected generally to reduce potential dilution to the Company’s common stock upon any conversion of the Convertible Notes and/or offset any cash payments the Company is required to make in excess of the principal amount of converted notes, as the case may be, in the event that the market value per share of the Company’s common stock, as measured under the terms of the capped call transactions at the time of exercise, is greater than the strike price of the capped call transactions (which initially corresponds to the initial conversion price of the Convertible Notes, and is subject to certain adjustments), with such reduction and/or offset subject to a cap initially equal to approximately $55.16 (which represents a premium of approximately 100% over the last reported sale price of the Company’s common stock on November 11, 2020), subject to certain adjustments. The capped call transactions are separate transactions, entered into by the Company and are not part of the terms of the Convertible Notes.
Given that the transactions meet certain accounting criteria, the convertible note capped call transactions are recorded in stockholders’ equity, and they are not accounted for as derivatives and are not remeasured each reporting period. As of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company had not purchased any shares under the convertible note capped call transactions.
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Prepaid Forward
In connection with the offering of the Convertible Notes, the Company entered into a prepaid forward stock repurchase transaction (“Prepaid Forward”) with a financial institution (“Forward Counterparty”). Pursuant to the Prepaid Forward, the Company used approximately $55.0 million of the net proceeds from the offering of the Convertible Notes to fund the Prepaid Forward. The aggregate number of shares of the Company’s common stock underlying the Prepaid Forward was approximately 1,994,198. The expiration date for the Prepaid Forward is November 15, 2025, although it may be settled earlier in whole or in part. Upon settlement of the Prepaid Forward, at expiration or upon any early settlement, the Forward Counterparty will deliver to the Company the number of shares of common stock underlying the Prepaid Forward or the portion thereof being settled early. The shares purchased under the Prepaid Forward are treated as treasury stock and not outstanding for purposes of the calculation of basic and diluted earnings per share, but will remain outstanding for corporate law purposes, including for purposes of any future stockholders’ votes, until the Forward Counterparty delivers the shares underlying the Prepaid Forward to the Company. The Company’s Prepaid Forward hedge transaction exposes the Company to credit risk to the extent that its counterparty may be unable to meet the terms of the transaction. The Company mitigates this risk by limiting its counterparty to a major financial institution.
10. Other Accrued Liabilities
Other accrued liabilities consist of the following (in thousands):
September 30,
2021
December 31,
2020
Accrued compensation$10,920 $15,161 
Accrued variable consideration14,239 5,025 
Accrued professional fees5,069 3,183 
Accrued interest on convertible notes4,200 1,369 
Accrued other48 52 
Total other accrued liabilities$34,476 $24,790 
11. Stock Compensation
Employee Stock Purchase Plan
In April 2020, the board of directors approved the Esperion Therapeutics, Inc. 2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the "ESPP") which was approved by the Company's shareholders on May 28, 2020. The ESPP allows eligible employees to authorize payroll deductions of up to 10% of their base salary or wages up to $25,000 annually to be applied toward the purchase of shares of the Company's common stock on the last trading day of the offering period. Participating employees will purchase shares of the Company's common stock at a discount of up to 15% on the lesser of the closing price of the Company's common stock on the NASDAQ Global Select Market (i) on the first trading day of the offering period or (ii) the last day of any offering period. Offering periods under the ESPP will generally be in six months increments, commencing on September 1 and March 1 of each calendar year with the administrator having the right to establish different offering periods. In the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, the Company recognized approximately $0.2 million and $0.6 million of stock compensation expense related to the ESPP, respectively. In the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, the Company recognized $0.1 million of stock compensation expense related to the ESPP. As of September 30, 2021, there have been 133,214 shares issued and 691,786 shares reserved for future issuance under the ESPP.
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Stock Options
The following table summarizes the activity relating to the Company’s options to purchase common stock for the nine months ended September 30, 2021:
Number of OptionsWeighted-Average Exercise Price Per ShareWeighted-Average Remaining Contractual Term (Years)Aggregate Intrinsic Value
(in thousands)
Outstanding at December 31, 20204,176,518 $40.24 5.28$18,415 
Granted757,992 $28.06 
Forfeited or expired(1,001,831)$48.92 
Exercised(228,741)$14.04 
Outstanding at September 30, 20213,703,938 $37.02 4.22$2,708 
The following table summarizes information about the Company’s stock option plan as of September 30, 2021:
Number of OptionsWeighted-Average Exercise Price Per ShareWeighted-Average Remaining Contractual Term (Years)Aggregate Intrinsic Value
(in thousands)
Vested and expected to vest at September 30, 20213,703,938 $37.02 4.22$2,708 
Exercisable at September 30, 20212,947,780 $37.21 3.11$2,708 
Stock-based compensation related to stock options was $2.8 million and $12.7 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, respectively, including $0.8 million and $1.3 million that were capitalized into inventory, and $5.1 million and $16.2 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, including less than $0.1 million and $0.5 million that were capitalized into inventory. As of September 30, 2021, there was $15.3 million of unrecognized stock-based compensation expense related to unvested options, which will be recognized over a weighted-average period of 2.5 years. The increase in stock option expense for the three months ended June 30, 2021, was primarily due to an equity modification related to the CEO Departure Agreement entered into between the Company and the Company's former CEO on May 16, 2021.
Restricted Stock Units (or RSUs)
The following table summarizes the activity relating to the Company’s RSUs for the nine months ended September 30, 2021:
Number of
RSUs
Weighted-Average
Fair Value Per
Share
Outstanding and unvested December 31, 2020401,234 $